(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A handbook of figure skating arranged for use on the ice / by George H. Browne."

HANDBOOK 

OF 

FIGURE SKATING 

ARRANGED 
FOR USE ON THE ICE 

With Over Six Hundred Diagrams and Illus- 
trations, and Suggestions for Nearly 
Ten Thousand Figures 



By 
George H. Browne, A.M. (Harv.) 

Cambridge Skating Club 
New England Skating Association 



Third Edition 



Published by 

BARNEY & BERRY 

Springfield, Mass., U.S.A. 



Copyright, 1907 




PREFACE 

i N order that this little book may be most 
effective for use on the ice, the practical 
part has been put at the end for con- 
venience; and the hints and cautions 
therein have been reduced to the smallest 
compass consistent with clearness, by 
the separation of the theoretical and his- 
torical matter by itself in the earlier parts. 
This inversion, though permitting a systematic presenta- 
tion in a logical order from the general to the particular, 
brings at the beginning of the booklet matter unattractive 
to the reader, unless he already has some knowledge of 
skating or active interest in the art. The novice, there- 
fore, will find Part I easier and more interesting, if he first 
familiarize himself with the names, definitions, illustra- 
tions, etc., in Part II. He will do well, consequently, to 
read Parts I and II before venturing upon the ice with 
Part III. 

Although something is said of every type of figure, a 
book of this size can not say all that may be said of any 
figure. Nor does it aim to make a wholly original contri- 
bution to skating literature : it aims only to give accurate 
information as far as it goes, and to make more available 
the skating literature that already exists. To this end , 
copious references to the best books and occasional ex- 
tracts from them are given; special permission to print 
which is acknowledged with thanks to Messrs. Longmans 
& Co., Macmillan & Co., Horace Cox, Esq., of the Field, 
and A. D. Innes & Co.'s successors, Ward, Lock & Co., 
London; to Perry, Mason & Co., Boston; and to the 
other publishers in the list on pages 18, 19. The Austrian 
books are to be heartily recommended to American skat- 
ers, especially Holletschek's, for its cheapness and its 
wealth of illustrative material, which is well adapted to 
our style of skating, and perfectly intelligible to those who 
do not read German, if they simply note that forward is v 
(vorwarts) not f; backward, r (ruckwdrts) not b; out- 
side, a (auswarts) not o; and inside, e (einwarts) not I, 
thus : 

Rva = noF = Right outer forward. 

Rve = rif = Right inner forward. 

Lra = lob = Left outer backward. 

Lre = lib = Left inner backward. 

The author also wishes to make grateful acknowledge- 
ments to Mr. E. H. Barney, of Springfield, Mr. Eugene 

3 



B. Cook of Hoboken, N. J., and Col. C. E. Fuller of 
Boston, for valuable information, obtainable from no 
other source, in regard to early American Skating; to Mr. 
Louis Rubenstein of Montreal (Canadian champion 1878- 
89, American champion 1888-9, and world's champion 
1890), Mr. J. F. Bacon of Cambridge (champion 1893), 
Mr. Herbert S. Evans of Boston (champion 1896), to 
Mr. E. C. Hill of Brockton, Mr. L. A. Servatius of N. Y., 
and Dr. A. G. Keane of N. Y. (champion 1898-99-1900), 
for figures and photographs of later American skating; 
and for information and documents concerning English 
skating, to Dr. M. S. Monier- Williams and Dr. G. Herbert 
Fowler, Hon. Sec. N. S. A., of Great Britain, — concerning 
Continental skating, to Herr H. J. S. Wisinger, of the 
Training Eisclub, Vienna, Herr O. Schoning, editor of 
Deutscher Eissport, Berlin, and Edgar Syers, Esq., Lon- 
don, late Sec. N. S. A. junior champion of Europe 1900, 
who has also given kind permissiou for the reproduction 
of various new photographs and figures. 

In order to keep this handbook strictly up to date, the 
publishers will be glad to receive from skaters any new 
combinations not hitherto published, with the date of 
first performance. Address 

BARNEY AND BERRY, 
Springfield, Massachusetts, U. S. A. 
October, 1900. 

"A most fine figure!" — Shakspere, L. L. L. t 1, 2, 58. 
"Is't possible? Very easily possible." — M. A., 1, 1, 74. 




Fig. 357, No. 95 

Skating Problem — A Double Eight wtih Hook-Scrolls. 
From decoration on the Tomb of Agamemnon, at Mycenae, 
carved nearly 3000 years ago. 

"Because you want the grace that others have, 
You judge it straight a thing impossible 
To compass wonders." — / Henry VI, 5, 4, 46. 

4 'The want is but to put those powers in motion 
That long to move." — Cymbeline, 4, 3, 31. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PART I— WHAT TO DO 

Introduction. — National Styles and Requirements. 

The Use of Diagrams and Illustrations . Page 9 

Figure Skating and Golf . . . • 9 

Correct Form, British and Continental . . 10 

Adapted to American Skating . . . 11 

Rules for British Form . . . . 11 

Rules for American Form . . . . 14 

The Coming Together of the Two Schools . 1 5 

Brief History of Skating and Skating Literature, 

chiefly English . . . . . . 15 

American Skating and Competitions ... 20 
The Program of the American N. A. S. A. for 

Figure Skating Contests . . . . 23 

British Competitions and Tests ... 24 

Third Class . ... 24 

Second Class . ... 25 

First Class, Section A . . . . 25 

Section B . . . .26 

Continental Skating and Competitions . . 28 

Prescribed Figures of the International Skating Union 28 
Program of the German and the Austrian Skating 

Associations ...... 29 

Hints for Beginners ..... 29 

The National Championships — . . . 31 

Of the World 32 

Of Europe . . . . . -33 

Of America . . . . . .34 

Methods of Judging and Scoring — . . . 35 

British . . . . . . 35 

American . . . . . 35 

Continental . . . . . . 36 

British Special Figure Skating Test (Oct. 1900) 38 
The Adoption of the Continental Style by the 

British N.S.A. 40 

British Rules for Continental Form . . 40 

The Skating of the Future . . . 41 

PART II— WHAT TO DO IT WITH 

The Elements, the Strokes, and the Types 
of Combinations. 

The Elements of Figure Skating 
The Three Edges, or Q^s . 
The Four Edges ..... 

5 



43 
47 
48 



Continuous Eights .... 

Crosses and Stars .... 

The Simple Combination of the Elements — 

Simple Rolls and Eights (i 12 in number) 

Combinations of Two Elements (676) . 

Combinations of Three Elements (8,788) 
The Strokes — 

1 From One Foot to the Other . 

2 On One Foot (Turn) . . ~ . 

3 Turn and Stroke (Once Back) 
Table of Strokes, with Corresponding Turn, and 

Once Back — 

1. .Same Edge, Same Direction 

2 Same Direction, Different Edge 

3 Same Edge, Different Direction 

4 Different Edge, Different Direction 
"On to Richmond" and Locomotives 
The Rhythmical Combination of Strokes 

1 In Field . . . 

2 In Circles . . . 

3 In Ordinary (Perpendicular) Eights . 

4 In Wing (Horizontal) Eights . 
Hand-in-Hand Skating . 
Pair Skating 

The Position of the Feet 

The Position of the Head and Shoulders 

Balance . . . • 

Boots and Skates ..... 



PART III — HOW TO DO IT 

Brief Hints and Cautions for Use on the Ice. 

Plain Skating 

Lap -foot Circle ...,.,, 
Two-foot Serpentine c .>»'*';. * 
The Four Edges — 

1 Inside Edge Forward 

2 Outside Edge Forward . 

3 Outside Edge Backward . 

4 Inside Edge Backward 
Change of Direction — 

J On Two Feet. 

Simple Grapevines : Single, Double, Double 
and a Half, Philadelphia, Four-point, Scis • 
sors, Pennsylvania, Chinese . . . 

II From One Foot to the Other. 

1 Without Change of Edge, Mohawks . 

2 With Change of Edge, Cboctaivs 
Cross Mohawks and Cross Choctaws 



49 

5o 

5 1 
5 1 

5* 

5* 
53 

53 



5* 

57 

58 

59 
61 

62 
62 
63 
64 

65 
67 

68 
69 

72 

73 



77 
77 
78 

79 
80 

81 

82 

83 



84 

86 
88 
88 



Ill On One Foot. 

The Four Turns — 

1 Threes : . 

Two Turns, or Double Threes ; 
Multiple Turns, or Chain Threes 
Change of Edge, on One Foot. 
The Four Q]s — Change and Turn 
The Four Reverse Q^s — Turn and Change 
The Four Turns — 

2 Brackets . 

3 Rockers .... 

4 Counters . 
Loops — 

I On Two Feet . . 

II On One Foot. 



Single 
Multiple 



Ringlets ...... 

Cross-cuts, Beaks, and Pig's Ears — 

I On Two Feet. I The Lily, the Lilac, etc 
2 Combination Grapevines 
II On One Foot ... 

Rockers and Counters, without forced Curve 
Beak-Q^s, or Tig's Ears 
New Varieties of Cross-cut 
Spins — 

I On Two Feet. 

1 Whirls (Edge and Flat) . 

2 Cross-foot Spins (Edge and Flat') 
II On One Foot. 

1 Ringlet Spins (Edge) 

2 Flat-foot Spins (Flat) 

Combination Spins 

3 Pirouettes (Point) . 
Toe and Heel Movements — Pivot-Circling 
Hand-in-Hand Figures 
Pair Skating Figures 
Continuous One-foot Figures 

Appendix — The Rules of Hockey . 



89 
90 
90 

9 1 
93 
94 

95 

97 
99 

100 
100 
101 
101 

1 01 

102 
103 

104 
104 
105 



105 
106 

106 

107 
107 
107 
108 
111 
112 
114 

123 



Illustrations — The 660 illustrations comprise 20 half- 
tone per: raits of American and Foreign Skater 5 , chiefly in 
action; 550 diagrams of skating movements, all but a few 
problems and strokes from actual marks on the ip-e ; and 
90 outline tracings from instantaneous photographs of 
skaters in action. 



" Let every man now task his thought 
How this fair action may on foot be brought. " 
— Shakspere, Henry V, 1, 3, 310. 



PART I * WHAT TO DO 

General Introduction on National Styles and 
Requirements. What is expected of the best 
Skaters, and how competitions are conducted. 
Official Schedules. The development of the art 
of Skating at home and abroad wp to the pres- 
ent day. History and literature of the art. 

T m ■ K-BiB- ^^HE best and quickest way to learn to skate is 
to imitate the best skaters. But good models 
are not always at hand. Fortunately, the 
■■5"™* skating books of the present day are so good 
MftPsjS that it is quite possible to learn from them, 
3S3HJ provided the reader has interest enough to take 
a little pains beforehand, and practical experience enough 
to interpret the diagrams and figures correctly. The dia- 
gram of a skating movement is only the record left on the 
ice by the skate; the position of the skater's head, should- 
ers, and arms, and the functions of his hips, knees, ankles, 
aud unemployed leg, in making the mark, are mostly un- 
recorded ; yet any one of these elements may be said to be 
more important than the marking foot itself. The inade- 
quacy of a single instantaneous photograph to reproduce 
motion is only too obvious when we recall the almost im- 
possible, awkward positions revealed by single instantane- 
ous snaps at a running horse or a jumping athlete. A 
series of biograph views, perhaps, would be more adequate. 
But if the reader will only see with his mind's eye, he will 
find the diagrams and figures of this little book, with the 
accompanying descriptions, a practical, serviceable substi- 
tute for the living instructor. 

The first step, then, for the beginner, is to learn to 
look intelligently at the diagram and see what is going on 
above it, — to look at the figure of a skater in action and 
see the movements just preceding and just following the 
one depicted. Otherwise, the chief difficulty of all begin- 
ners will not be relieved : for all beginners, with or without 
diagrams, concentrate too much attention upon the feet, 
with the usual result that ankles, which have danced all 
night and played golf and tennis or climbed mountains all 
day without tiring, are after five minutes' skating declared 
"weak!" Now, figure skating, like golf, requires not 
so much exceptional strength, as correct form in the ex- 
penditure of moderate force. Golf is not easy or attract- 
ive to a beginner who takes the first clubs he sees that are 
not too long or too heavy, grips them hard, and hammers 



at the ball with all his might, ignoring all other conditions. 
It is not surprising that figure-skating, too, seems difficult 
and discouraging to one who puts on skates often too long 
and too heavy, and chosen with no regard for the more 
important consideration of curve of blade and sidewise ad- 
justment; and who then, unheeding the position of head, 
shoulders, arms, or knees, tries to skate entirely with his 
feet. No wonder the over-worked ankles seem weak ! 
The fiction of weak ankles, however r will disappear, when 
this method of skating is as unrecognizable as this method 
of golf-playing. When the performer on the ice pays as 
much attention to the selection of his skates as to the 
selection of his clubs, and pays as much attention on the 
ice to his shoulders, arms, and unemployed leg as he pays on 
the links to his stance, to his grip, and to his follow, he 
may soon enjoy as keen satisfaction from the ease and 
accuracy of his curves and turns on his skates as from the 
right-sounding stroke of his club and the unerring flight of 
his golf-ball, — and what is more, do all the flying himself! 
The object of this chapter is to give the essentials of 
"correct form" in the official statements of the best 
authorities, as preparation for the efficient use of the dia- 
grams and illustrations that follow. 

There are two distinct schools of skating, — the British 
and the American, or Continental. Figure-skating to an 
Englishman has, until within a few years, always meant 
skating large, bold curves and turns to a center in combi- 
nation with other skaters. Consequently, in order that 
the combination might be made possible by all skating 
alike, his rules have been strict and uniform ; that the 
skating might be large, the position of his body has been 
erect and his knees straight; that danger at che center 
might be avoided and a true balance be attained, his 
unemployed foot has not been allowed to swing. Figure- 
skating to an American means making curves and turns, 
both large and small, generally by himself, cutting loops, 
cross-cuts, beaks, pig's ears, and a variety of other designs, 
with free-swinging arms and unemployed foot, with no 
restrictions upon his individual freedom, grace and ease of 
motion being largely a matter of personal taste or disposition. 

"It is probably true that the extreme of either style is 
incorrect. The most difficult movements, requiring an 
extraordinary amount of skill and sustained power, can be 
executed with grace, as well as facility, in the non-British 
style. Equally true is it that the extreme British style 
may lend to stiffness of action, and a sort of poker elegance 
which is the reverse of graceful."* 

*Dr. M. S. Monier- Williams in Meagher's Figure and 
Fancy Skating- (1895), p. 26. 

10 



When one sees a skater like Mr. Evans of the Boston 
Skating Club — American champion, 1896 — who is al- 
ways on his balance, who knows just what each part of 
his body is contributing, and ought to contribute, to the 
prosperity of the figure he is skating, whose movements 
are easy, graceful, steady — not vigorous, though under 
perfect control — and when one sees a skater like Mr. 
Bacon of the Cambridge Skating Club — American cham- 
pion, 1893 — who in his field skating is almost never on 
his balance, whose movements are vigorous and rapid, 
whose arms and unemployed leg swing with rhythmic 
precision, who can spin like a top and fly like a bird, yet 
can hardly tell you how he does it all — though he, too, 
has perfect control of his edge — one sees the balance style 
and the swing style admirably adapted to the American 
conditions of small curve skating. Few can attain the 
success of these proficients, but both will tell you, which- 
ever style you prefer, that the quickest and surest road to 
it is to begin by acquiring a good balance. 

The secret of all good skating, then, is balance. Since the 
English style, ^even for beginners in the American style, is the 
very best of preliminary practice for attaining a good balance, 
it may be well to give first the rules for the English style 
as laid down recently by an advocate of its strictest school. 

RULES FOR STRICT BRITISH FORM. 

1. The employed leg must be kept absolutely straight. 
No bend in the knee is to be allowed, whether the skater 
is traveling on an edge or making a turn. 

2. The unemployed leg must touch the employed.* The 
toe of the foot should be turned outwards and upwards as 

as far as is comfortable, in a direction 
at right angles to the employed foot. 
Figs. 1, 2. 

3, 4. The body and head must 
be held quite erect, the shoulders be- 
ing held well back. There must be 
an effort at first to keep quite upright, 
and in fighting against an inclination 
to lean forwards, the shoulders will 
have to be very consciously stiffened 
and held back. This in the ele- 
mentary stages does give an idea of 
super-rigidity, but once properly ac- 
2 -British quired, it feels comfortable and looks 2— British 
natural — just as one expects a man Engadine 





LOF 

Engadine 



to walk with an upright carriage of 



*This is the extreme position of the Swiss " Flick and 
Jam" School. Londoners allow the unemployed to stray a 
little and point the toes down and out. "In the above posi 

1 1 



the body, not leaning forward with bent shoulders and 
downcast head. 

5. The arms should hang easily by the side of the body 9 
with the elboivs turned in. The beginner presents the 
appearance of those toy wooden figures — you pull the 
string, and the figure jerks its arms and legs — and it is 
only by constant practice and by remembering to turn the 
elbows in, that the ugly wooden effect can be avoided. 

The advantage of assuming position from these rules is 
that the centre of gravity of the body always remains in a 
vertical line over the centre of the skate, and then a very 
slight forward or backward inclination of the whole body 
is sufficient to enable the skate to clear the ice and form 
the turn without a scrape. It has been much debated 
whether the unemployed foot may not be allowed to sepa- 
rate from the employed and lie behind it. But this would 
only tend to draw the centre of gravity of the body back- 
wards, which effect would have to be counteracted either 
by bending the knee or by waving the arms in the air as a 
counterbalancing power. 

The rules of American and Continental skating are thus 
directly opposed to those of English. The American 
bends his knee as deliberately as the Englishman straight- 
ens his ; he lets the unemployed leg hang away from the 
employed; and he uses his arms to aid or counter-balance 
this strayed foot. Consequently, the body does not assume 
an upright position. It would seem that this method 
would make the art of skating more easy : a turn can be 
effected by a twist of the unemployed foot, and a corre- 
sponding swing of the arms in the required direction. Pace 
can also be gained by this swing; but it also has the effect 
of throwing the skater hard on to the new edge, thereby 
perforce keeping his curves small. 

In order, therefore, to keep his skating large and bold 
in the true English style, in which the use of the unem- 
ployed leg is not permissible, the English skater has to 
resort to the combined figure in order to get pleasure him- 
self or to furnish pleasure to others. Here is his opportu- 
nity to display his individual skill and his skill in adapting 

tion, when a turn is executed, a considerable muscular 
effort is required of the employed foot, which is jerked 
round sharply with a 'click.' The aim, too, of the skater 
from the Edgadine being to skate all his curves of extra 
large size and at extra high speed, the bending of the body 
at the moment of striking is exaggerated, and a decided 
stamp to gain force is apparent. These peculiarities pro- 
duce a general effect which is the very reverse of graceful, 
and, when carried to their logical extreme, must be held to 
justify the reproach that the ultra- British style of skating 
is stilted, wooden, and ungraceful." — Monier- Williams, 
Figure Skating, 1898, p. 63. 

12 



himself to the powers of others. Here, too, is his oppor- 
tunity for fast and bold skating, with a new and vivid joy 
gained from some slight element of danger other than that 
to which he is accustomed. The skaters together now gain 
what they lacked above : they have become interesting and 




3— "Frank Swift" (Wm. H. Bishop), Champion 
of America, 1S68 

give pleasure to the onlooker. Even one who knows 
nothing of the art can appreciate a good combined figure. 
The strength, boldness, smoothness were there before, but 
now all skate with an almost machine-like regularity at 
the call of one; and that they should be able to make 



such designs, intricate in themselves, in such harmony, 
from an apparently meaningless call, seems little short of 
marvellous.* 

RULES FOR AMERICAN FORM 

Freedom from restrictions has been the cardinal princi- 
ple of the promoters of American skating. The first and 
only original American text-book (1868) bears the name 
of " Frank Swift," Wm. H. Bishop, champion of Amer- 
ica, 1868, but was written by Marvin R. Clark, who was 
not a skater. His rules for correct form, probably reflect 
adequately the usage of his time. 

"The body should be erect, but yielding, and kept gen- 
erally square to the front 5 but the skater should remember 
that *the lines of business are straight, while those of 
pleasure are curves. ' The body, therefore, should be easy 
and pliable, with no degree of stiffness, leaning slightly 
forward. An air of lightness should pervade every motion. 

"The head should be carried upright, inclining back- 
ward, and easy in any position, the skater always remem- 
bering our important caution — never look down at the 

FEET WHILE SKATING ! 

* * The shoulders must be kept slightly back of the breast 
and moderately low, not forced, but easy in the position 
(whatever that means). 

"The legs should not be stiff. Nothing so effect- 
ually destroys the beauty and gracefulness of the movement 
as stiffness of the limbs; and, as it gives a rigidity to the 
body, it is not only unbecoming, but materially disadvan- 
tageous. 

" The knee of the performing leg should be slightly bent. 
This rule is absolute, 

"The arms must hang loosely at the side, the elbows 
slightly bent, the hands naturally facing the body, the 
fingers neither imitating the tines of a fork, nor clutched 
as if with a spasm, but a little bent and slightly separated.*' 

The full-front inclining body, the bent knee, and swinging 
unemployed leg, are characteristics of the same skating 
to-day, the nearest approach to a formal description of 
which is that by the Canadian professional, Meagher 
(1895), whose indebtedness to Clark is obvious: 

"A position of ease, natural, unassumed, and especially 
devoid of affectation, is essential. The body should be 
held naturally erect, yet yielding, and with the chest well 
expanded. All the members of the body should work in 
unison, in an easy and pliable manner, with no stiffness, 
and an air of lightness should pervade every motion, as 

♦Adapted from Geo. Wood, " Combined Skating," Lon- 
don, 1899. 

14 



a constrained or forced motion destroys harmony, and gives 
pain to the spectator. Whatever position the head is 
thrown into while the skater is executing different move- 
ments, it should fall into position naturally, never too 
stiffly. It should incline as if by intuition in a continued 
graceful motion, without apparent effort or volition. The 
shoulders should always be kept well back, not forced, but 
in position. Stiffness of the limbs gives a rigidity to the 
body which is unbecoming and naturally disadvantageous. 
A pliability of form is absolutely necessary to the acquire- 
ment of the different movements executed on skates. 

"The 'unemployed' leg as it is usually termed, which 
I may add is generally employed more than the other,* 
should always be more or less bent, according to the move- 
ment ; and should never be held with the knee perfectly 
straight like a crowbar. Unless there is a slight bend of 
the knee, the skater has an ungainly appearance. ... 
If I personally were asked the question how the body should 
be held while skating, I should say, ' I live while I skate ; 
I feel every motion 5 all the muscles speak and answer me, 
as it were. I talk with my arms, my shoulders, with all 
my limbs, and think of poetry, of music — of flying, if you 
wlH.'*' (M. 29-31.) 

" Remember that the head rules the feet. Remember 
that when striking out on any edge you must feel that you 
are perfectly keen on that edge, until it is changed to an- 
other. Remember that it is allowable to look down at 
the feet in executing certain figures * to place,' but that 
in cutting figures 'in field ' it is absolutely unnecessary, in 
fact, detrimental. Remember not to skate your move- 
ments too hurriedly, as you are not skating against time, 
and speed is certainly the greatest enemy of grace. (M. 
p. 27.) 

"The grand curves are^admirable^" says Mr. Eugene 
B. Cook, than whom no one can speak on American 
skating with more authority, "and very small ones may 
be exquisite. As in music the range is from pianissimo to 
fortissimo, and from largo to prestissimo, so in artistic 
skating the greatest master is one who can perform his fig- 
ures in miniature or of the grandest size, and who can show 
the gentlest grace or the most rapid vigor, at will. Over- 
legislation results in tyranny. Cast-iron rules are danger- 
ous, and may lead to misjudgment of a master who knows 
when they should be laid aside. Rigidity is not <J*ie of 
the attributes of grace, neither is the flexibility of the 
'slapjack.' There is a natural sympathy between the legs 
and arms, and grace will best be reached without shackles. 

* Swift and Clark's term is •• balance f oot." 

*5 



My ideal of skating is that it should embrace everything 
that is good. Hampering fetters and narrowness should 
be sedulously avoided. The devotees of the art of skating 
should not put shackles upon it, but work to develop the 
Skating of the Future." 

A most interesting stage in the history of skating is 
reacned this year in the coming together of these two 
schools. Although figure-skating is roughly two hundred and 
fifty years old, its life in its modern form as above outlined 
has been only about forty : of which the first decade, 1860- 
70, was largely a period of discovery and invention 5 the 
last, 1 890-1 900, one of perfection of organization and 
exposition. The keenest analysis and the most lucid expo- 
sition have been contributed by the English, — their best 
skaters have been university men and most clear writers. 
The Swedes and the Austrians have recorded their contri- 
butions in well illustrated books. American skaters, too, 
have done much for the art in these last forty years 3 but 
the black and white record of it has been mostly in white 
marks on black ice. The history of American skating is 
"writ in water." A complete history of figure skating, 
therefore, is unattainable; but the interesting situation of 
the year 1 900 will be better appreciated, if we trace, very 
briefly the development to the present time of the several 
standards of excellence in the three great skating countries. 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF SKATING 
AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SKATING 
LITERATURE, CHIEFLY ENGLISH 

- Figure skating was introduced into England by Roy- 

IOOO a jj gt j? x ji es re t U rning at the time of the Restoration 
from Holland, whence they brought the Dutch roll. Skat- 
ing was seen for the first time by the diarists, Pepys and 
Evelyn, in December, 1662; and as late as 171 1 (in 
1 7 11 the time of the Tatter and the Spectator), Swift asked 
Stella if she knew what "skaits" were. The Edinburgh 
Skating Club was founded in 1742, or perhaps 
I 74 2 "7 2 earlier; but not until 1772 is there any literary 
record of the art. Robert Jones' Treatise on Skating of that 
year contains the first mention of of three, of 8 , of and if 
Spread Eagle, ob Roll, the Serpentine, and combined figures 
without turns. By this time, the Americans had taken up 
the art. Benjamin West, the painter, was a skilful skater.* 
"One day, having crossed the ocean, he was skating in the 
Serpentine and amazing Londoners by the grace and rapidity 
of his motions." He was recognized by Col. Howe — 

*Dunlap, History of the Arts of Design in the U. S 
N. Y., 1834, vol. r, pp, 60, 61. Quoted by Lewis, p. 12. 

16 



afterward Gen. Howe in the colonial war — whom he had 
met on the ice in Philadelphia. " *I am glad to see you, 
said Howe, * and not the less so that you come in good time 
to vindicate my praises of American skating.' He called 
to him Lord Spencer Hamilton, and some of the Caven- 
dishes, to whom he introduced West as one of the Phila- 
delphia prodigies, and requested him to show them what was 
called 'The Salute.' He performed his feat so much to 
their satisfaction that they went away, spreading over Lon- 
don the praises of the American skater. Nor was the 
considerate Quaker," says the historian, " insensible to the 
value of such commendations; he continued to frequent the 
Serpentine and gratify large crowds by cutting 'The Phila- 
delphia Salute. ' Many to their praise of his skating added 
panegyrics on his professional skill ; and not a few, to vin- 
dicate their applause, followed 
him to his esel, and sat for their 
portraits." 

4 'Though Philadelphians have 
never reduced skating to rules 
like Londoners," says Graydon, 
in his Memoirs,* "nor connected 
it with their business like Dutch- 
men, I will yet hazard the opin- 
ion that they are the best and 
most elegant skaters in the 
world 5" and he had seen "New 
4-English rib England skaters, Old England 5 -English lob 
1834 Skaters, and Holland Skaters." 1834 

This is a true characteristic of London skaters; in the year 
g after the "Skating Club" was formed (1830), The 
* Skaters Manual r , by a member (London, 1831), 
R formulated rules and printed thirteen combined figures. 
** That the style, however, was more like our own 
early skating than the later stiff English style, the tracingsf 
from Walker's Manly Exercises (London, 1834) 
will show, Figs. 4, 5. By 1852, however, the forms 
and rules were becoming more rigid ( The Art of 
Skating, by "Cyclos" — George Anderson, president 
of the Glasgow Skating Club — 1852, second edition 
1868) ; and in 1869, the modern English style was 
practically fixed by the important publication of Van- 
dervell and Witham's System of Figure Skating. In 
the ten years preceding (18 59-1 868), modern American 
skating (page 19) had been developed and carried to Canada 
and Europe. 

*Graydon, Alex: Memoirs of a Life, Chiefly Passed in 
Pennsylvania, etc. Harrisburg,i8n. QuotedbyLewis,p.i3. 





1834 
1852 



1868 



1869 



jMa^e for us bv E l--:i- S- e- , K^q., London. 



Approximate dates can now be given to the first perfor- 
mance of familiar movements. Counter-rocking turns were 
Rfi - first skated by Mr. Vandervell in 1 8 60-61 ; and, 
together with rockers, were independently dis- 
covered by Mr. E. B. Cook in 1863-5, rockers afterward 
R _ - investigated and first described and named in 
I803-D5 l87 g_ 8l by Mr Pidgeon and Mr. Monier- 

Williams at Oxford. Cupid's Bow and the forced curve 
«fi« R were ^ rst described m 1868. In 1880 Mr. 
Maxwell Witham skated the first bracket. In 
RR 1 88 1 the Continental development of American skat- 
ing, carried to Europe by Jackson Haines in 1864, 
RR was expounded in the first edition of Spuren auf dem 
^ Eise, ( Vienna ) . In 1 8 8 3 Monier- Williams published 
R the first edition of Combined Skating; and in 1891 
* the final revised rules for combined skating were agreed 
R upon by the English skating clubs. In Dec, 1892, 

" The Youth'' s Companion, Boston, published four sys- 
tematic articles on figure skating for boys and girls to the 
illustrations of which, thanks to the publishers, we are in- 
debted for some of our cuts. The rapid development of 
skating and skating literature in the last ten years is shown 
most briefly and effectively by the following list of titles, 
with the abbreviations by which we shall refer to them. 

ABBREVIATIONS 

Skating Theory and Practice 

D.E. 1 89 1. Deutscher Eissport, Berlin, the organ of the 
I.S.U., issued weekly from Oct. to Apr. Contains all 
the fixtures and news of European and English skating. 

SpE. 1892. Spuren auf dem Eise, second edition, Vienna, 
Alfred Holder, 8vo, pp. 350, M. 7, 50 pf. A thorough 
exposition of the Continental style, copiously illustrated. 

S.C. 1892. Figure Skating, Simple and Combined, 
Monier-Williams and others, second edition, London, 
Macmillan & Co., small 8vo, round corners, pp. 322, 
$1.25. Strictly English. Diagrams of over 150 
combined movements. 

B» 1892. The Badminton Library, Figure Skating, by 
T. Maxwell Witham, London, Longmans & Co., 
8vo, pp. 464, $3.50. The most systematic exposition 
of the English system. 

M. 1895. Figure and Fancy Skating, George A. 
Meagher, London, Biiss, Sands & Foster, 8vo, pp. 
150, $1.50. Canadian style. 

1895. Skating and the Philadelphia Skating Club, 
John F. Lewis, printed for the Club, Philadelphia, 1895. 
1895. Skating Gossip, T. Maxwell Witham, Bad- 
mington Magazine, Dec. 1895, vol i, p. 608. 



H. 1896. Kunstfertigkeit im Eislaufen, fifth edition, 
Robert Holletschek, Troppau, Buchholz, small square, 
limp, pp. 282, M. 1, 70 pf. The most systematic 
exposition of Continental skating, with over 1000 dia- 
grams of Austrian, Swedish, and Russian figures. 

1896. Figure Skating, Hon. Algernon Grosvenor, 
New Review, London, Feb. 1896. 

H-H. 1896. Hand-in-Hand Skating, N. G. Thomp- 
son &f L. Cannan, London, Longmans &f Co., small 
square, round corners, limp, pp. 259, 6/-. Over 200 
i lustrations of pairs skating hand in hand. 

R. 1897. The "Oval" Series, Figure Skating, by Ar- 
chibald Read, London, Routledge, 8vo, pp. 142, 2/-. 
Anglo-Swiss School. 

MxW. 1897. A System of Figure Skating, T. Maxwell 
Witham, fifth edition, London, Cox, 8vo, pp. 319, 
boards, 2/-. Liberal English. Novel illustrations of 
pairs skating hand in hand. 

1897. Skating on Artificial Ice, Mrs. Walter Creyke, 
Nineteenth Century, March 1897, p. 475. 

M-W. 1898. Figure Skating, M. S. F. Monier-Wil- 
liams, vol. vii, Isthmian Library, London, A. D. Inness, 
8vo, pp. 316, 5/-. Most liberal English style. Best 
exposition of Continental skating in English. 

W. 1899. Combined Figure Skating, George Wood, 
London, F. E. Robinson, thin, 8vo, pp. 166, 2/—. 
Strictest Swiss-English (Davos). 

I.S.U. 1899. International Skating Union, Official 
Skating Program, Stockholm. 

N.S.A. 1900. National Skating Association of Great 
Britain, Official Handbook of the Departmental Com- 
mittee for Figure Skating, London. In effect Oct. 1900. 
1 900. Skating in Figures, Boston Herald, Feb. 26, 1 900, 
an illustrated article explaining how to skate the Cam- 
bridge Skating Club's Figure Skating Tests. 

History and Bibliography 

1897. On the Outside Edge, Diversions in the History 
of Skating, Dr. G. Herbert Fowler, London, H. Cox, 
small i6mo, pp. 72, 2/6. 

1898. A Bibliography of Skating, F. W. Foster, Lon- 
don, B. W. Warhurst, Chelsea, 8vo, 5/-. 

1899. Figure Skating Competitions. Edgar Syers, Bad- 
minton Magazine, Jan. 1899, — an interesting account 
of European contests and skaters. 

1899. Style in Skating, George Wood, London Field, 
Nov. 11, 1899. An excellent exposition of the differ- 
ences between English and Continental skating and skates. 

19 



AMERICAN SKATING AND COMPETI- 
TIONS 

THE OFFICIAL SCHEDULE 

Figure skating on this side of the water began in earnest, 
uot as the British naturally think in Canada, but in a region 
less favored by nature, where even now artificial ice offers 
better facilities for practice than in New England or in any 



■ -. v. 



i|g§l§§§§ 




■■■ ■ ■■■-■■ ■ ',: ■■■■: :■:■■'-. . ■■ . . ■; ■.■■.■■:■/■■■ ■.■.■■, , ■. ■ : ■■,■>.:■ . : : . . ' : ' ■ ■■ ' : ■■■.■.■■■■ 

I© ' ■ ■ ■■ , ■ liSSBIiilii 




6 — Wm. H. Fuller, whose tour "Round the World on 

Skates," in 1865, was described in Harper*s 

Magazine for April, 1870. 



20 



other part of the United States except New York, Brooklyn, 
Pittsburg and Baltimore. The Philadelphia Skating Club 
was founded in 1849, with headquarters en the 
1 49 Schuylkill River ; and in the fifties, through its pro- 
ficients Col. Page, Peter Weaver, the Van Hook brothers, 
and others, set the pace which Canada and the Continent 
afterward took up. In Boston, on the South Bay and over 
what is now the Back Bay district, E. H. Barney, John 
Berry, C. E. Fuller, and his cousin Wm. H. Fuller, Blon- 
din, the tight rope walker, J. T. Ryan, J. H. Murch, G. 
W. Lord, and others, developed another school of Ameri- 
can skating, just before the outbreak of the Civil War. 

a In 1858-9, Boston and Philadelphia skaters in- 

** ^ troduced figure skating into New York, Mr. Pin- 
chon of the Philadelphia club bringing the first grapevine; 
and from Boston, E. H. Barney his famous 8, (fig. 89), 
the Fullers, Charles E. and Wm. H. (the heroes of Theo. 
Winthrop's "Love and Skates,""*) spins, rolls, and acro- 
batic feats, and Jos. H. Murch the two foot whirls, which 
he originated, etc. W. H. Cheesman skated the first one 

8 - foot 8 in 1862; Adam Baudoine the first one foot 8 
with loop in 1864. About this time, or earlier, 
were skated the figures subsequently named Mohawks, 
Choctaws and Cross-cuts, (Edw. Brady, E. B. Cook), 
Pirouettes, of to of (John Martin), ob (E. B. Cook), Ring- 
let Spins, (E. B. Cook, Jackson Haines,) Pivot-Circling 
(E. B. Cook) Heel and Toe Movements (Adam Bau- 

Rfi doine, Callie Curtis, £. B. Cook). In 1863 the 
•* New York Skating Club was organized; and the 
proficiency in the art developed so rapidly, with the rapid 
development of the new club skate and the example of such 
skaters as Andrew J. Dupignac, Pres. N. Y. Club, Chas. 
W. Jenkins, Alex. Macmillan, John Powers, champion of 
the St. Lawrence, Eugene W. Pratt, champion of the 
Northwest, J. C. Mead, John Engler, E. T. Goodrich, 
Callie Curtis and W. H. Bishop ("Frank Swift,") — not 
to mention Miss Henrietta Bedell, Miss Nellie Dean, the 
Misses Tobey and Miss Carrie Augusta Moore, — that rinks 
were opened in Brooklyn, Buffalo, Jersey City, Pittsburg, 
Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago and St. Louis; and in 1868 

__ R the first American congress met at Pittsburg and 
adopted Mr. Cook's N. Y. Skating Club programme 
of twenty-five numbers for the guidance of skaters and a 
standard for competitions. Callie Curtis won the $500 

championship medal. In 18.63-4 Jackson Haines, in 186c 
Wm. H. Fuller, and in 1869-70 Callie Curtis and E. T. 
Goodrich carried the American style to Europe. I'nde? 

* Atlantic Monthly, Jan. and Feb. 1S62. 

21 



the inspiration of a younger generation of skaters (like Edw. 
W. Burr, James B. Story — champion 1879, — T. A. 
Williams, G. D. Phillips, S. J. Montgomery, together 
with some of the older men like E. B. Cook and the late 
W. B. Curtis), the National Amateur Skating Association 




/ — Nellie Dean and Callie Curtis. 

nn „ of the United States was formed in 1886 : under the 
T JsHfi 

inspiration of Louis Rubenstein (Canadian champion 

1878-89, and American champion 1888-89, world's cham- 
pion 1890), the Amateur Skating Association of Canada 
was formed in 1888; and through the encourage 
1888 ment of Col. C. E. Fuller of the Boston Skating 
Club, who has been at the front of all skating improvements 

22 




Mr. E. H. Barney in a Cross Loop Eight, at his home, 
Forest Park, Springfield, Mass., December, 1898- 

"Resembling strong youth in his middle age." 

Shakespeare, Sonnet, 7, 6. 




Col. C. E. Fuller E. B. Cook, Esq. " Frank Swift" 

On the Board of Judges, St.Nicholas Rink, N. Y., Feb., 1896 

"Young in limbs, in judgment old." — Shakespeare M. V., 2, 7, 7/, 




On C\ 



»- £ 

T3.g en 

o 



00 ^» 

CO 

* M 

2° c 

* o 

.s-§ a 

VA O 

,4 h^ h H & 



i^» £ jt>- ^ 

§8 2 -<* g 

" u » ** 

§ a -t * 






3 



o 

I - 

00 
On 



* d ^ •«-• .« r> ;3 



W d J 






£3 






.2 



o 



CO 



ro 



V) NO 



oo 



On 



O M 



in New England for forty years, the New England Skating 
Association was founded in 1889, with the Colonel 
" for its president. Representatives of these organiza- 
tions met in New York in Feb. 1891, and adopted 
^ the following revised schedule, which may be taken 
as the official standard of American skating of the present 
time : 

PROGRAM OF THE NATIONAL 
AMATEUR SKATING ASSOCIATION 
FOR FIGURE SKATING CONTESTS 

The object of this program is to set forth the movements 
of figure-skating so as best to test the proficiency of skaters, 
and in an order that will economize the strength of the 
contestants. The movements are arranged under compre- 
hensive, fundamental heads, designed to include everything 
appertaining to the art. It is to be understood that when- 
ever practicable all movements are to be executed both for- 
ward and backward, on right foot and on left, in field and 
to place. 

1 . Plain forward and backward skating in various ways. 

2. Outside edge roll forward. 

3. Outside edge roll backward. 

4. Inside edge roll forward, in field and eights, single 
and double circle. 

5 . Inside edge roll backward, in field and eights, single 
and double circle. 

6. Figure eight on one foot forward, single and double 
circle. 

7. Figure eight on one foot backward, single and dou- 
ble circle. 

8. Cross roll forward, in field and eights, single and 
double circle. 

9. Cross roll backward, in field and eights, single and 
double circle. 

10. Change of edge roll forward, beginning on outside 
and on inside edge. 

1 1 . Change of edge roll backward, beginning on outside 
and on inside edge. 

12. Spread eagle on inside and outside edges. 

13. Curved angles — threes: single, double, chain and 
flying, beginning on inside and on outside edge. 

14. Curved angles — rocking turns from outside edge 
to outside edge, and from inside edge to inside edge, forward 
and backward. 

15. Curved angles — cross-cuts or anvils. 

16. Grapevines, including Philadelphia "twist." 

17. Toe and heel movements, embracing pivot circling, 
toe spins (pirouettes), and movements on both toes. 

23 



1 8. Single and double flat-foot spins, cross-foot and 
two-foot whirls. 

19. (#) Serpentines on one foot and on both feet; (£) 
change of edge, single and double. 

20. Loops and ringlets on inside and outside edges, sin- 
gle and in combination. 

2 1 . Display of complex movements, at the option of the 
contestant. 

22. Specialties, embracing original and peculiar move- 
ments. 

If limited as to time, the judges may select what is 
thought best. 

This schedule is intended as a guide, as well to skaters as 
to judges, who should continually bear in mind that grace is 
the most desirable attribute of artistic skating. 

In deciding the relative merits of competitors, special 
attention will be given to grace and ease of position, accu- 
racy in skating to place, and ability to use both feet equally 
well. 

BRITISH COMPETITIONS AND TESTS 

Only since March, 1896, have British skaters held com- 
petitions in their combined figure-skating between teams cf 
four skaters representing properly constituted skating clubs. 
Since 1 8 8 1 , however, individual skaters have been encour- 
aged by the National Association to skate for bronze, silver, 
and gold badges, offered to winners of three official tests. 
Between six hundred and seven hundred of such badges have 
been given. The quality of performance may be inferred 
from the requirements, here printed for the first time in this 
country. 

Third-Class Ice Figure-Skating Test 

The judges will require the test to be skated in good 
form, the essentials of which are ( 1 ) Sideways attitude of 
body 5 (2). Face turned in direction of progress; (3) Up- 
rightness of carriage; (4) Straightness of employed leg, 
and ( 5 ) Approximation of heels. 

(a) ROF and LOF 3-turn; each curve 15 feet at least. 

(b) OF and OB roll, and OB cross-roll; each 

curve lo feet at least. 

(c) OF Eight; diameter of each circle 5 feet at least. 

Second-Class Figure-Skating Test 

No candidate can be judged for this test unless he has 
previously passed the Third-class Test. 

The judges will require all turns to be skated clean, and 
all movements to be executed in good form. 

24 



In the following list of figures, the word "turn" means 
an ordinary, or 3-turn. 

(a) I RIF and LIF turn; each curve 40 feet at least. 
2 ROF and LOF turn; each curve 50 feet at least. 

(b) The following figures skated to a center on alternate 
feet without pause, three times on each foot. 

1 IF turn ; each curve 1 5 feet at least. 

2 OF turn ; each curve 1 5 feet at least. 

3 IF two turns; each curve 10 feet at least. 

4 OF two turns; each curve 10 feet at least. 

5 IF three turns; each curve 10 feet at least. 

6 OF three turns; each curve 10 feet at least. 

(c) OB two turns, on alternate feet on the 
cross-roll, three times on each foot, each curve 8 
feet at least. 

(d) I RIF, LIF, Q; each curve 30 feet at least. 

2 ROF, LOF, Q; each curve 30 feet at least. 

3 RIB, LIB, Q; each curve 15 feet at least. 

4 ROB, LOB, Q; each curve 10 feet at least. 

(e) A set of combined figures skated with another skater, 
who will be selected by the judges, introducing the 
following calls in such order and with such repetitions 
as the judges may direct. (For the interpretation of 
the terms, the reader is referred to S. C, page 18. 
The figures are the numbers of the diagrams in that 
book, which best illustrate the call. ) 

1 Forward turn entire ( 3 ) . 

1 Once back — and forward (13). 

3 Once back — and forward turn (14). 

4 Once back off meet — and forward turn entire (99). 

5 Once back meet — and back — and forward turn( 1 o 1 ) . 

(f) The judges shall call three "unseen" figures of quite 
simple character, in order to test the candidates' knowl- 
edge of calls and power of placing figures. 

First-Class Figure-Skating Contest 
SECTION A — Part I 

Thirteen prescribed figures to be skated with another 
skater, who will be selected by the judges. 

Part II 

Not more than five or less than tnree "unseen" figures 
of moderately simple character, to test the candidates' knowl- 
edge of calls and power of placing figures upon the ice. 

SECTION B 

To pass this section, a candidate must score 60 marks at 
least. 

No marks shall be scored in respect of any one-footed 
figure unless it is skated on each foot, and in compliance 

' *5 



(on each foot) with the printed conditions as to form and 
dimensions. A corresponding rule shall apply in the case of 
two-footed figures. 

The figures in the section are divided into groups, and a 
candidate shall attempt all the figures he proposes to attempt 
in an earlier group before attempting any figure in a later 
group, but he may resign marks scored in an earlier group 
for the sake of scoring for a figure in a later group. 

The judges may allow a candidate any number of attempts 
at a givexi figure that they consider reasonable. 

In groups I to 6, every loop must measure in its longest 

diameter between 6 inches and I foot 6 inches. Loops must 

not cut each other. The curve, both before and after each 

trefoil, double loop, or loop, as the case may be, shall be J 

.feet long at least. 

I Continuous Trefoils, six in number. In each tre- 
foil the curve succeeding the last loop must cut that 
preceding the first. 

Forward 18, Backward 26. 
2* Double Loops. 

IF 3, OF 3, IB 5, OB 5. 
3 Continuous Loop 8, six in number, diameter of 
each circle being 5 feet at least. 

Forward 12, Backward 18. 
4* Continuous Loops, six in number. 

Forward 6, Backward 10. 
5* Loops. IF 1, OF 1, IB 2, OB 2. 

In groups 6 to 10, every cross-cut must have a base at 
least 8 inches long, and the cross-cuts must not touch each 
other. 

6 Continuous Change Cross-cut 8, six in number, 
the diameter of each circle being 5 feet at least. 

Forward 9, Backward 15. 
7* Continuous Cross-cuts, six in number. 

Forward 5, Backward 9. 

8 Maltese Cross. The cross-cuts must be approxi- 

mately of the same size, and approximately at right- 
angles to each other. 

IF 5, OF 5, IB 8, OB 8. 

9 Inverted Maltese Cross. Same as 8, only the 

bases toward the center of the figure. 

IF 5, OF 5, IB 8, OB 8. 
10* Cross-cut. The curves before and after the cross- 
cuts must be each at least 3 feet long. 

IF 1, OF 1, IB 2, OB 2. 

*A candidate shall not score for a figure in a starred 
group, if he has obtained marks for the corresponding fig- 
ures in a previous group. 

26 



In groups II to 16, the curve before and after each turn 
must be 6 feet long at least. 

ii Continuous (Change Turn) 8, six in number y 
diameter of each circle, 5 feet at least. 

Inside Turns 10, Outside Turns 10. 
12* Continuous Q's, six in number. 

Inside Turns 4, Outside Turns 4. 
13 Continuous Bracket 8, six in number, diameter of 
each circle 6 feet at least. 

Inside Turns 15, Outside Turns 17. 
14* Continuous Brackets, six in number. 

Inside Turns 9, Outside Turns 11. 
15^ Brackets. Curves before and after turn 9 feet at least. 

IF 2, OF 3, IB 3, OB 4. 
16 Continuous Counter 8, six in number, diameter 
5 feet at least. 

Inside Turns 18, Outside Turns 20. 
17* Continuous Counters, six in number, every curve 
9 feet at least. 

Inside Turns 10, Outside Turns 12. 
18* Counters. Curves before and after turn 9 feet at least. 
IF 2, OF 3, IB 3, OB 4. 

19 Continuous 8, six in number, diameter 5 feet at least. 

Forward 4, Backward 4. 
In groups 20 to 24, the curve before and after the turn 
or change of foot must be JO feet at least. 

20 Rockers. IF 4, OF 4, IB 3, OB, 3. 
21* Counters. IF 3, OF 4, IB 4, OB 8. 
22* Brackets. IF 3, OF 4, IB 4, OB 8. 

23 Mohawks. IF 2, OF 3. 

24 Choctaws. IF 3, OF 2. 

25 Spread-Eagle. The curve must be 30 feet at least. 

A candidate shall not score for more than one Figure 
in this Group. Inside, 60 feet radius, 1 ; Straight, 
3 j Outside, 60 feet radius, 6. 

26 Toe-Steps. A candidate shall not attempt more 

than six varieties. 

Each variety, 1. 

27 Grapevines. A candidate shall not attempt more 

than seven varieties. 
Each variety, 2. 

28 Canadian 8. One foot in advance of the other. 

Forward 1, Backward 2. 



" The firm fixture of thy foot would give an 
excellent motion to thv gait in a semi-circle." 
— Shakspere, Merry W'ves of Windsor,^ 3, 68, 



27 





CONTINENTAL SKATING AND COMPE- 
TITIONS 

In 1892 The International Skating Union was formed by 
associations and skating clubs of Austria, Canada, Denmark, 
Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, Hungary, Nor- 
way, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland 5 and at its third regu- 
lar congress, in August, 1897, drew up the following rules 
for correct carriage and movement — within which rules the 
individuality of the skater receives free play and all possible 
consideration on the part of the judges : * 

( c Upright carriage, not bent 
at the hips, but without being 
stiff 5 strong bending of the \\ 
knee or body to be only mo- 
mentary (Fig 8). Head up- 
right. Unemployed foot raised 
only a little from the ice, not 
dragging behind, with toe turned 
downward and backward ( Hg. 
9 ) y bent a trifle at the knee, 
and generally held behind the 
employed foot; otherwise swing- 
H.G^enander, ing freely, and assisting the move- g : H . Grenan 
World's Cham- nient, but not held far away, der, Stroke 
pion, i8g8 Arms, hanging down easily with- lifIorif 
out swinging, may, like the unemployed foot, be used to assist 
the movement, but elbows or hands not to be raised far 
from the body, the latter never, if possible, above the waist. 
Fingers neither spread nor clinched. In general, everything 
violent, angular, or stiff in the action to be avoided ; no 
endeavor to be violently expressed, but the impression is 
to be given that the execution of the figures requires no 
effort/' 

Under the auspices and rules of the I. S. U., two great 
Continental figure-skating competitions are held each year : 
one for the championship of Europe, the other for the 
championship of the world. The program consists of two 
parts, a selection of half a dozen or more prescribed figures, 
and five minutes' free skating at the choice of the contest- 
ant. The most comprehensive Continental schedule is that 
of the Austrian Skating Association (Fig. 10), of which 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 9, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 24, 27, 
30, 33 constitute the I. S. U. program. There are four 
kinds of each number, begun on each of the four edges. 
Specimens of the free skating may be found in Fig. 357. 

* Translated from the " Wettlauf-Ordnung der Interna- 
tionalen Eislauf-Vereinigung, festgesetzt vom III ordent- 
lichen Congress zu Stockholm, 1897," an ^ unaltered at IV 
Congress, London, June, 1809. 

28 



io — The Prescribed Figures of the German and the 
Austrian Skating Associations and the Inter- 
national Skating Union 




13 1+ 15 /6 

Nos. i, 3, 9, 5, 2, 1 2 and 8 of Fig. io, are issued in Berlin 
( 1 900 ) , as "Elements of Figure Skating, ' ' with the following 

HINTS FOR BEGINNERS 

1. Hold the body erect. Don't look down upon the 
ice, nor under any circumstances at the toe of your skate. 

29 




2. Carry the unemployed leg slightly bent at the knee, 
behind the employed, the toe turned out, back, and down. 

3. Whenever it is necessary to swing the unemployed 
leg forward, bring it back to its normal position as soon as 
possible. 





The Reverse Q>, 
Nos. 41, 42, and 
43, are in the Ger- 
man schedule, not 
in the Austrian. 



41 42 43 

4. Avoid all jerky movement, and let the hands follow 
the motion of the body naturally, without swinging. 

5. Practice each figure only in the prescribed eight 5 aim 
at equal size and symmetrical position of both lobes (i. e. 
keep the axis true). 

6. Skate each figure as large as possible. 

7. Practice indefatigably the four simple edges until you 
are complete master of them. They are the foundation of 
all figure skating. 

THE NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS 

The marked difference between the Continental and the 
American tests is at once apparent. The selection, months 
beforehand, of a few specific movements, no matter how 
fundamental, from a list so small as the I. S. U. program, 
permits concentration of practice on a limited number of 
figures, and in so far makes against the development of all- 
round skating. The American program which aims "to 
include everything appertaining to the art" is more thorough; 
but, practically, the filling out of some of the numbers in 
recent New York competitions has been so meagre, and "the 
love for adornment with medals has seemed to be so much 
more prevalent than the love for the art of skating, ' ' that 
some of the older skaters have resigned from the N. A.S. A., 
whose management, according to Caspar Whitney (Har- 
pers Weekly y Feb. 25, 1 899), has not been free from 
local bias. Perhaps, if some of the numbers were prescribed 
beforehand, and some drawn by lot at the contest, the ends 
desired by all might best be served. 

3« 




II — G. Hugel, Champion of the World, 18^9-1900, in Second 

Curve of of Rocker, in the Competition at 

Davos, February, 1S99 



CHAMPIONSHIP OF THE WORLD 

1895. London: 1, H. Grenander, Stockholm j 2 r G. 

Hugel; 3, G. Fuchs. 
1897. Stockholm : G. Hugel, Vienna. 

1896. St. Petersburg : G. Fuchs, Munich. 

32 




12 — U. Salchow, Champion of Europe, 1S98-1900, in ob 
Rocker, in the Competition at Davos, February, 1S99 

CHAMPIONSHIP OF EUROPE 

189 6- 1897. Competion not held. 
1895. Budapest : T. von Foldvary, Budapest. 
1894. Vienna : Ed. Engelmann, Vienna. 
1893. Berlin : H. Grenander, Stockholm. 
1892. Vienna : Ed. Engelmann, Vienna. 
1 89 1. Hamburg : O. Uhlig, Berlin. 



33 




13 — Dr. A. G. Keane, Champion of America, 1898-1900 

CHAMPIONSHIP OF AMERICA 

1887, first champion, under N. A. S. A., F. P. Good; 
'88, '89, L. Rubenstein; '90, no contest; '91, G. D. 
Phillips declined to skate off tie with L. Rubenstein; '92, 
Phillips beat J. F. Bacon and retired (N. Y. Herald, Feb. 
16); '93, Bacon beat H. S. Evans; '94, contest aban- 
doned; '95, Phillips reentered and won, but was beaten in 
'96 by Evans, who then retired; '97, Phillips beat Keane; 
then retired and took charge of the St. Nicholas Rink. 

34 



METHODS OF JUDGING AND SCORING 

The strict rules for English form have undoubtedly con- 
tributed to a high level of general proficiency among English 
skaters, but at the expense of individual freedom and elastic- 
ity. Judges and skaters have a definite standard to go by, 
even if it doesn't suit everybody. On the other hand, the 
freedom of the American schedule and rules makes it difficult 
for skaters always to know just what local judges expect of 
them, — there is no precise standard for skaters at large. 

The rules of the National Amateur Skating Association 
of the United States, are as follows: "The officials of a 
figure-skating competition shall be three judges and one 
scorer. The judging shall be done on a scale of points 
running from the number of contestants down to o. 

Experience shows the following to be the most practical 
method of scoring : The number to be given to the one 
standing first in any section shall be that of the number of 
contestants. Should there be two or more of equal merit^ 
they should be marked the same number j and the one com- 
ing next below takes the number resulting from subtracting 
the number of competitors above him from the number 
entered. A total failure is marked zero. A fall does not 
necessarily constitute a failure. 

At the conclusion of each figure, each judge shall, with- 
out consultation with his associates, mark the number of 
points he awards to each competitor. These reports shall 
then be compared, and in case of disagreement the majority 
shall decide. The scorer shall keep an accurate record of 
the points allowed to each contestant on each figure. ' ' 

The chief objection to the American competition is the 
inordinate length of the program and the injustice of count- 
ing all numbers alike. There is need of a varying multiplier 
to equalize the values according to difficulty, as in the I.S.U. 
As it is, a good skater may lose on an easy number more 
points than he can make up in several difficult numbers. 

According to I.S.U rules, the success of every prescribed 
figure is marked with numbers o to 5, of which o =: not 
skated or failure, 2 = pass, 3 = good, 5 = faultless ; 1 
and 4 are intermediate. In assigning a number, first impor- 
tance is given to correct mark on the ice , second, to carriage 
and movement j third, to size of figure , and fourth, to ap- 
proximately exact placing of marks in the triple repetition. 
As rules for correct tracing, are to be regarded : ( 1 ) the 
maintenance of the long and transverse axes of the figures 
In the triple repetkion; (2) Approximate equality of the 
halves of the eights 5 ( 3 ) symmetrical grouping of the parts 
(4) curves without wobbling, skated to the end — i. e. 9 
returning nearly to the starting point. 

The free skating is marked : (a) for the contents of the 

35 



i&ogram offered (difficulty and variety); (b) for the man- 
ner of performance (harmonic composition, surety, pose, 
and movement, etc. ) ; in each case with the numbers o to 
5, with the same values as in the prescribed figures. 

The number of points for free figures plus the number of 
points for compulsory figures, gives for each skater individ- 
ually the total number of points which he has earned from 
the individual judge. Each judge ranks the competitors 
according to these total points, and the final resjlt is obtained 
by adding the ranking ordinals (the lowest winning). 

In the competition for the world's championship at 
Davos, Feb. 10, n, 1900, the score of the five judges was 
as follows (prescribed figures, Nos. 9, 6, 7, 8, 15, 24, 30, 
33, Fig. 10): 




U. Salchow, skating his famous Star (Fig - . 14) in the 
World's Championship Competition at Davos 



Gustav Hiigel, Vienna. 
Prescribed figures, 206 
Free skating, 96 



232 
120 



219 

120 



233 
120 



225 
120 



1115 

576 



302 352 339 353 345 
II I II I I 



Total, 
Rank, 

Ulrich Salchow, Stockholm. 

Prescribed figures, 244 239 230 241 223 
Free skating, 108 96 108 108 96 



= 1691 



1183 
516 



Total, 352 335 344 349 319=1699 

Rank, I II I II II 

Thus Hiigel won because three judges out of five ranked 
him first, although Salchow led him by eight points ! 
Hiigel was superior in his specialties, which were his famous 
dance steps (Fig. 15), spectacles, brackets and loops, jumps 
from if to ob, and ob to of, and his corkscrew spin on 

36 



bended leg, coiiing around it the unemployed held in both 
hands, and finishing w'th a pirouette on the toe, all at a 
tremendous speed. The field steps embraced rockers, brack- 
ets, counters, cross Mohawks, and other 
difficult steps, done at high speed, in 
rapid succession, mingled in bewildering 
and effective fashion. Salchow's field 
figures were slower, consisting of spread- 
eag'es, jumps, and chain threes; he did 
the Grenander 8 (Fig. 88 — skated by 
Cale Curtis in Hamburg, 1869!), 
14-Salchow'sStar the En^elmann star (Fig. 14) of great 
a to b, 4F1. size (Cf. Fig. 357, No. 62); and he 

c to d, 4 ft. jumped from an of, turned twice in the 
loop, 3 ft. „• 1 , 

' ° air, and came down on of. 





15 — G. HDgkl, in Dance Steps. World's Championship 
Competition at Davos 

Henning Grenander, of Stockholm, the winner of the 
first world's competion held under the new I. S. U. rules 
in February, 1898, had been living two years in Lon- 
don; and several British skaters had been for some years 
essaying the Continental style. Under the influence of this 
style, which is better adapted to rink skating, the N. S. A. 
adopted June 10, 1897, a special figure skating test, which 
we give in the revised form of October, 1900. 

*« Bring- me to the test." — Hamlet, 3, 4, 142. 



37 



BRITISH SPECIAL FIGURE-SKATING 

TEST 
PART I — Section A 

This part must be skated in strict English form. 
The following set of combined figures, must be skated in 
the order stated below : 

1 . Twice back and forward 2 turns, off center turn, 2 
turns, and forward inside turn ofF. 

2. Twice back and forward off center rocker entire off. 

3. Forward bracket, turn, entire. 

4. Twice back center bracket entire. 

5. Forward inside turn, bracket, entire. 

6. Forward 2 counters out and forward inside 2 brackets, 
and forward Mohawk and back inside orTcenter rocker entire. 

7. Forward inside, and once back and forward, and for- 
ward inside orTcenter rocker entire. 

Repeat, beginning on left foot. 

Section B 

In Nos. 1 to 8, the turns are to be made at two oranges 
placed 50 feet apart, and the candidate must travel at least 
50 feet before the first turn, and at least 50 feet after the 
second one. All threes and rockers to be done on the off 
side, and all counters and brackets on the near side of the 
orange. The cusps of all forward turns must be within 1 
foot of the orange, and those of all back turns within 3 
feet. In Nos. 9 and 10, the Mohawks and Choctaws must 
be executed at two oranges placed as before, and the length 
of curve, before and after the figure, must not be less than 
50 feet. Outside Mohawk and Choctaw must be done on 
the near side and the corresponding inside movements on the 
off side of the orange, the end of the forward curve being 
within I foot of the orange in every case. Every movement 
must be skated on the right as well as on the left foot. 

1. Forward turn, bracket. 

2. Forward inside turn, bracket. 

3. Forward bracket, turn. 

4. Forward inside bracket, turn. 

5. Forward 2 rockers. 

6. Forward inside 2 rockers. 

7. Forward 2 counters. 

8. Forward inside 2 counters. 

9. Forward Mohawk, rocker, Choctaw. 

10. Forward inside Mohawk, rocker, Choctaw. 

PART II 

This part must be skated in good style, having regard to 
the nature of the figure skated. The following will be 
regarded as points of good style: (1) Preservation of con- 
trol over the body and limbs, whether the unemployed leg 

3« 



and arms are swung or not. (2) Continuity of movement 
and uniformity of pace — /. e. the movement of the body 
and limbs should be such as to produce the effect of rhythm 
or cadence 5 abrupt movements and sudden changes of speed, 
except such as are characteristic of the particular figure, 
should be avoided; the speed should be the same in the 
corresponding parts of the figure, whether on the same or 
different edges. (3) Vigor. 

The figures must be approximately symmetrical. In 
Nos. 1 to 7 the figure must be continued as long as the 
judges may require, the curves, turns, etc., being approxi- 
mately superposed. In Nos. 3, 4, 6, 7, the turns and 
loops must be made approximately half-way round each 
circle of the eight. Eveiy figure must either be executed 
on both feet, or, where a choice is given of edges, the fig- 
ure may be skated on another edge on the other foot. No. 
4 must be skated on the opposite edges to those selected for 
No. 3. 

Subject to the above rules, latitude will be allowed as to 
the exact shape of the figures to be skated. 

1. Continuous 8 forwards. 

2. Continuous 8 backwards. 

3. Continuous change turn 8, inside or outside turns. 

4. Continuous change bracket 8, inside or outside turns. 

5. Continuous counter 8, inside or outside turns. 

6. Continuous change loop 8, forwards. 

7. Continuous change loop 8, backwards. 
9 to 12. Maltese cross on all edges. 

13. Inverted Maltese cross on one edge. 

14. Continuous counter cross- 
cuts, forwards or backwards. 





15,16. (On both edges. ) (15, 16) 

17. (On outside edges). 

18. Single grapevine, right and left shoulder leading. 

19. Double grapevine forwards. 

20. Double grapevine backwards. 

21. Philadelphia grapevine forwards. 

22. Philadelphia grapevine backwards. 

23. Pennsylvania grapevine forwards. 

In addition to the above, the candidate will be required 
to skate three picture figures of his own selection on either foot 
to the satisfaction of the judges. 

October, iqoo, 

39 



THE SKATING OF THE FUTURE 

Hiigel believes that the insistence by the I.S.U. upon 
accurate placing of marks, is making against the best inter- 
ests of artistic skating. Accurate placing compared with 
good carriage and movement, seems to him like a building- 
plan compared to an artistic picture. "Carriage and move- 
ment," he says,"* "are means of expression which, reflecting 
the inner, actual nature of the skater, should be in perfect 
harmony with his mastery, and give a true expression of his 
artistic style and his real ability to skate. But practically to 
make good form secondary to a painful striving for mere 
accuracy of place (which enforces ungraceful contortions of 
head and shoulders, and in which a perfectly worthless 
stagnation point is attainable), is a complete perversion of 
real artistic skating at the expense of grace and beauty." 

On the other hand, the Anglo-Swiss school of British 
skaters believe that the N.S.A. are too lax in their inter- 
pretation of their requirements of good form, large size, 
freedom from swing, and accuracy of p'acing ; and the clubs 
at Grindelwald, St. Moritz, and Davos, whose tests eschew 
the swinging cross-rolls, are going to form an association to 
preserve the true English style large and bold, free from 
Continental influence. The figure-skating committee of 
the N.S.A., however, on March 7, 1900, recommended 
the holding of individual competitions in both the English 
and the Continental styles 5 and a sub-committee was appoint- 
ed to consider the question of amending the rules of the 
I.S.U. regarding form in the skating of continuous figures. 
This committee has not yet reported, but the following 
cautions by a member (himself a successful competitor under 
Continental rules) will no doubt be amplified into definite 

BRITISH RULES FOR TESTS 
IN CONTINENTAL FORM 

1. The unemployed toe should be turned down and out. 

2. The employed knee should never be stiff. 

3. The unemployed leg should never be hooked up. 

4. The unemployed leg should never be permitted to 
siving aimlessly, — each movement of it should have some 
definite object : to facilitate a change of edge or a turn j to 
accelerate or arrest a movement, etc. 

5. The arms should not siving violently; if they are 
carried one across and the other away from the body, they 
should be extended so that the hands are on the side opposite 
the unemployed foot, in order that the balance may be 
preserved. (See Fig. 8, just before the swing, and the 
illustration on the next page. Cf. Figs. 353-4.) 

*Deutscher Eissport, Berlin, 1 Mar. 1900. 

40 




rif — Position 

of the Arms 
[ Continental I 



The N.S.A. held an International Competiton in Con- 
tinental form at the New Niagara, London, February 21, 
22, 1900; the prescribed figures, Nos. 7, 24, 30, and 33, 
Fig. 105 free skating, four minutes. The 
winner was Salchow, "the finest skater we 
have yet seen," reports a member, "better 
than Grenande*-, more accurate than Hiigel, 
with more strength and pace and as much 
size as Fuchs. " The coming year, the 
N.S.A. will celebrate its majority, wLh its 
first tests in Continental style. And thus 
the two schools "come together," not to 
form a new style, for the two can never 
mix 5 but, at last, the exclusive British asso- 
ciation officially recognizes the style which is 
supplanting, and will more and more supplant, 
its own stiff* style, because it is growing less 
and less suited to modern conditions. The sober, contented 
majority may continue for some years to plod on unruffled by 
the ultra-conservative "Extreme Right" (the Swiss school), 
or by the more liberal "Extreme Lefc" (the American and 
Continental school) 5 but the main body of British skaters 
can no longer slur our "cramped eights" and "stunted 
threes," (M-W. 64) ; or inculcate such ungenerous doc- 
trine as this (S. C. 24) : " With the straight leg the per- 
former of the humblest < Three' may be called a good 
skater ; without it, the exponent of the most intricate and 
showy figure will fail to be reckoned in that class. The 
highest degree of skill is possible of attainment by the one ; 
by the other it can never be reached ! ' ' As Mr. Cook 
says (p. 15), the devotees of the art of skating should not 
put shackles upon it, or sacrifice everything for the win- 
ning of medals, but work to develop the Skating of the 
Future. 




Fig- 357, No. 94 
Skating Problem — Hook-Scroll, from decoration 
on the tomb of Agamemnon, at Mycenae, carved 
nearly 3000 years ago. 



" I cannot do't without Counters." 

— Shakspere, Winter's Tale, 4, 3, 38. 



41 



-tsV*; - ; 




The Spiral "Alesander" and Spanish Leap, A. Panin, 
Yusupov Garden, St. Petersburg, 1897. 

* If vou break the ice and do this feat." — T. St, 1, 2, 267. 




m:~-m s ". : ■■■-m^. ■ . ■ ' ~ '^ ! >« ;; » * j - ^ :"^t;iN^.i^^„^^w^ 

■IliiiiiKS "*"""* 

; : ;■ : ^ . ■ * ' • ' ^ HUP 

raj:?: -^^^^ 

4mmnmm 




The " Dutch Slide." Mr. Evans and Col. Fuller at 
three score years and ten. 

" He hath his health and ampler strength indeed 
Than most have of his age."— W. T., 4, 4, 415. 

"You that are of suppler joints, follow them quickly." 

— Tempest ,3,3, 107. 




PART II * WHAT 
TO DO IT WITH 

The Elements of Figure-Skating and the 
Strokes by which they are Combined 
into the Various Types of Movements. 
Definition of Terms. Boots and Skates. 

TRICTLY speaking, there is but one element 
of figure skating, the curve ; more strictly, 
two : a progressive element, the curve or edge ; 
and a non-progressive element, the spin, on the 
flat of the skate or on the point of the toe 
(pirouette). By means of these two elements, 
all possible figures may be skated. (Perhaps the jump — 
flying-turn — ought to be included). But this analysis is 
too minute to be of any practical use. Just as mere straight 
and curved lines are combined into the more serviceable 
units of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet, so the simple 
curve is combined by three motions of the body into double 
and triple-curve units, forming a figure skating alphabet of 
twenty-six fundamental figures. These motions are : 

1. From side to side, causing a change of edge. 

2. Backward and forward, causing a change of di- 
rection. 

3. Round and rouna, causing a change of front. 

There is another way of connecting two curves by a 
combination of these motions, hinted at above : on two 
feet, the spread-eagle jump (Fig. 132) ; on one foot, the 
flying-turn. One can take wings, as it were, and accom- 
plish the change of position in the air, and come down upon 
the ice on either edge in either direction, according to the 
amount of rotation. (See Salchow's famous jump, p. 37.) 

(In the following diagrams the long, solid arrow marks 
the beginning of the movement 5 the dotted arrow, the ro- 
tation of the shoulders 5 the short, straight, solid arrow 
points with the face.* r = Right, l =± Left 5 o = Out- 
side Edge, outer, 1 — Inside Edge, inner; f = Forward, 
b = Backward. Although most of the diagrams are be- 
gun on the rof, right outer forward, the same curve may 
be left outer backward, left inner forward, or right inner 
backward, as indicated in 16 and 17). 

*This symbol is used only in connection with the longer 
arrow, chiefly in the grapevines in Part III. 

43 



THE 




16, 17 



18 




ELEMENTS OF FIGURE-SKATING 

I. Single Curves, or Edges. 

Progression continuous. 

1 a Simple. Rotation uniform, 
b Forced. Rotation altered. 

II. Double Curves. 

A. Change cf Edge, or Serpentine. 

Progression continuous. 

2 Serpentine. Two curves joined 
by a change of edge; no change 
of direction or front. 

3 Horn. A reflex serpentine, all in 
one direction, but with change of 
edge and front. 

4 Counter-Horn. Same as 3, but 
with opposite or counter-rotation. 

B. Change of Direction. Turns or 
Curvilinear Angles. Progression 
continuous. Half rotation. 

5 Turn, or Three. Change of 
direction, edge, and front. 

6 Counter - Three, or Bracket. 

Two forced curves, with change 
of direction and edge, but no 
change of front. 

7 Rocking - Turn, or Rocker. 

Change of direction and front, 
but no change of edge. Rotation 
like 5, (<z) with forced curve 5 
(£) without forced curve. 

8 Counter Rocking - Turn, or 
Counter. Change of direction 
and front, but no change of edge. 
Rotation like 6, (#) with, (£) 
without forced curve. 

Progression arrested. No rotation. 

9 Beak, or V. Change of direction, 
but with no change of edge or front. 
( Like 7, without change of front. ) 

10 Counter-Beak, or V. Change 
of direction, but with no change 
of edge or front. (Like 8, with- 
out change of front. ) 

44- 



21 



22 




23, 24 




-0 




p-ii 




ii Hook. Like 9 or 10, without 
angle; second curve directly over 
the first. * 

C. Change of Front, or Rotation. 
( 1 ) Rotation on the edge : Loops 
and Ringlets. 

Progression continuous. Full rotation. 

12 a Loop (oval). Change of front, 

but no change of edge or direction. 

b Ringlet. Like a, only round. 



/- 



32,33 



13 Ringlet-Turn. Change of front 
and edge, but no change of direc- 
tion. 

y 14 Counter Ringlet-Turn. Like 
13, with counter-rotation. 




15 Three-Loop. Change of edge, 
direction and front. 




16 Bracket-Loop. Like 15, with 
counter-rotation. 



34, 35 (2) Rotation on the point: Pirouettes. 

Half, or one and a half, rotation. 
4J, 17 Pirouette. Change of front, edge 
and direction. 



^ Full rotation. 

18 Pirouette. Change of front, but 
no change of edge or direction. 




36,37 



(The second curve may come off from the first at any 
angle, varying with the amount of rotation. ) 



Half or one and a half rotation. 
19 Pirouette Loop. Similar to 17, 
with change of edge and direction. 



Full rotation. 

20 Pirouette Loop. Similar to 18, 
without change of edge or direc- 
tion. 




45 



/•o 




Half) or one and a half, rotation. 

21 Counter Pirouette. Change cf 

front and direction, but no change 
of edge. 

Full rotation. 

22 Counter Pirouette. Change of 

front and edge, but no change of 
direction. 



(The two curves of the reflex serpentine, or horn, may — 
theoretically — be joined not only by a change of edge, but 
also by a turn (Holletschek), or by a pirouette, thus: 

Rocking - Horn. Like 3, with 



rocking-turn instead of change of 
edge. 

Counter Rocking-Horn. Like 4, 
with counter-rocking-turn instead of 
change of edge. 

Pirouette Horn. Like 3, with 
pirouette instead of change of edge. 

Counter- Pirouette Horn. Like 
4, with pirouette instead of change 
of edge 




42,43 




44,45 



These combinations, however, are so difficult, that at pres- 
ent they are of little practical value, and may be left out of 
account. ) 

III. Triple Curves. 

Combinations of three curves are almost limitless, but 
in practical skating, the following triple combinations are 
as essentially units as the above twenty-two fundamental 
figures, and much oftener used than some of them, notably 
3, 4, 11, 13, 14, and 15-22, which may be technically 
better entitled to the name of elements. 



Progression continuous. Full rotation. 

23 Two Turns,or Double Three. 

Change of front, and double 
change of direction and edge. 

Progression arrested. 

24 a Cross-cut, or Anvil. (As 

developed from the double-three, 
with second curve forced to a 
straight line. ) Change of front 
and direction, but no change of 
edge. Full rotation. 

i 

46 




47 




/"^ 



49 



24 b Cross-cut. (As compose 1 < f 
rocker-beak, 9, and counter- 
beak, 10, cutting twice.) Full 
rotation. 



25 Counter Cross-cut. (Counter- 
beak and rocker-beak, cutting 
once, short. ) Little or no rotation. 



26 Swedish Cross-cut. (Counter- 
beak and rocker-beak, cutting 
twice, long. ) Full rotation. 



The "Three Edges' '— Q's and Reverse Q's 

A change of edge and a turn (formerly called a Q — Fig. 
51), ani a turn and a change of edge (formerly called a 
Reve se Q — Fig. 52), our " Three Edges," are most 






52 

fam.lar elements in English combined skating. When 
skated nearly straight, they must not be confounded with 
the rocker and the counter, which leave the same marks on 
the ice. Fig. 53. 

a Reverse Q, three edges. 

b Rocker, one edge. 

c Q, three edges. 

d Counter, one edge. 

In the Q's, the deflection in the 
curve after as well as before the turn, is an actual change or 
edge; in the rocking-turns, neither before, nor after, ror at 
thf* f urn, ; s ' h°re a«v chnn;e of edge. 

47 




The "Four Edges" 

The commonest type of combination of four curves, is 
the "four edges" on one foot, or "Arabesque" (in. field, 
Fig. 54; in eight, Fig. 55), two serpentines connected by 





54 55 

a turn. When skated nearly straight, it must not be con- 
founded with the counter-three, or bracket, which leaves 
the same mark on the ice. Fig. 56. 

i 





a 



a Double change of edge, four edges. 
h Same skated straight, four edges. 
c Counter-three, or bracket, ttvo edges. 

In c , the deflection of the curve is not a double change ; 
the figure is made of two forced curves (Fig. 17) instead 
of two serpentines (Fig. 18) — the curve up to the turn is 
all on one edge, the curve after the turn is all on another. 
The mark in the ice resembles a printer's brace ( ,-^ ) ; 
and Continental skaters give this name (Klammer) 
to the four edges, skated in this form. When Mr. 
Maxwell Witham discovered on rollers, in 1880, that 
the figure could be skated on two edges, he misnamed 
it Bracket ( I I ) . Continental skaters borrowed the 
figure, but named it more properly Counter-three (Ger- 
man, Gegendreier, Swedish, bakvand trea) because the 
rotation is counter to that of the regular three-turn. 
Since, however, the four-edge Brace is seldom skated, 
and since the counter-rocking-turn is called Counter, for 
short, the name Bracket is perhaps more serviceable than 
Counter-three, as it is shorter, and is actually sometimes 
used for the symbol / — ^— * . 

Combinations of four curves, however, cannot technically 
be termed elements. The two- and three-curve elements 
hitherto treated (except Q's) are strictly parts of larger fig- 
ures; they must be repeated on the other foot in order to 
make complete figures. Four curves or more on one foot, 
however, make complete figures in themselves. There are 
two types of these figures : the continuous eight, and the 
cross, or star. 

48 



I Continuous Eights 
Two serpentines, two rockers, or two counters (four 
curves separately), skated to place on one foot, make com- 
plete figures of only two curves, with a double change of 






57 58 59 

One-foot Eight Rocker-Eight Counter-Eight 

One-half outer edge One-half forward One -half forward 
One-half inner edge One-half backw'd One-half backw'd 
No change of direct'n No change of edge. 

front. These difficult figures require most perfect balance 
and considerable flexibility of ankle. Continuous eights are 
easier if the turns are put on the circumference of the lobes 
instead of in the middle of the eight. In this way, forward 
and backward threes, double threes and counter-threes, 
outer and inner loops and cross-cuts, may be skated together 
by means of two serpentines into continuous eights of four 
(or six) curves. 






61 62 

Four-Edge Eight Bracket Eight Loop Eight 

Continuous Eights of Four Curves 






63 64 65— Counter 

Double-Three Eight Cross-cut Eight Cross-cut Eight 
Continuous Eights of Six Curves 



49 



2 Crosses and Stars 

yhe Cross is the other typical one-foot figure made by 
combinations of four, four cross-cuts, for example. 





66— Straight Cut 
Maltese Cross 



67 — Curved Cut 
Maltese Cross 





68 — Swedish Cross-Cut 
Maltese Cross 



6g — Inverted Maltese 
Cross 



The insertion of the Serpentine change, although it 
increases the number of curves, increases a^o the power and 
control of the skater and the variety of the figures. It 
produces another and often easier type of Cross, which is 
called the Star. 





70— Cross-Cut S tar 
(Bell Loop. See Fig-. 352) 



71 — Hook Star 





72 - Pig's-Ear Star 

(Two Stars in one) 



73 — Counter Cross- 
Cut Star 



5° 



For more complicated varieties of this quadruple type of 
figure, see Fig. 357. These are the most difficult types of 
figure-skating movements, and we can reach them only by 
diligent practice of the elements on right principles. 

THE SIMPLE COMBINATION OF THE 
ELEMENTS 

The above twenty-six two- and three-curve elements are 
naturally of varying degree of difficulty and practicability. 
In the present condition of the art of skating, they are 
reduced i.i general availability for beginners to fifteen funda- 
mental movements for practice: 1, the Simple Curve, or 
Edge (itf) ; 2, Forced Curve, or Counter-Curve ( i£) j 3, 
Serpentine, or Change of Edge ( 2) ; 4, Turn, or Three ( 5 ) ; 
5, Two Turns, or Double-Three (23)5 6, Loop, Ringlet 
(12); 7, Cross-Cut, or Anvil (24^)5 8, Counter-Three, 
or Bracket (6)5 9, Rocking-Turn, or Rocker (7)5 10, 
Counter-Rocking Turn, or Counter ( 8 ) ; 11, Rocker Beak, 
or V (9); 12, Counter-Beak, or V (10); 13, Beak 
Cross-Cut (24^)5 14, Counter- Cross -Cut (29); 15, 
Swedish Cross-Cut (26). (7 and 13 are the same figures 
made different ways, and with 14 and 15 are three curve 
elements, like the double-three, which was included in the 
original five elements of the Austrian and Swedish school 
— the curve, serpentine, three, double-three, and loop.) 

Simple Rolls and Eights 

By means of strokes from one foot to the other, these 
elementary movements may be skated together in field fig- 
ures (quarter circles), rolls (half circles), or to place as 
eights (full circles). There are four of each kind, begun 
on each of the four edges — of, if, ob, ib, — or fifty-six in 
all.* For examples, see page 29, Nos. 1-7. The Ser- 
pentine, the Rocker, and the Counter-Eight, are usually 
skated in this country as two-lobe Eights, in Europe as 
three-lobe Eights, thus : 






74 75 76 77 78 79 

Serpentine Eights Rocker-Eights Counter-Eights 

*The forced curve is not a 1 independent element, — it is 
skated only in combination with the curve (rockers and 
counters) or with itself (brackets). 

5 1 



Combinations of Two Elements, on Alternate 

Feet 

Omitting Elements I and 2 as included in the others, 
each of the remaining thirteen elements may be combined 
not only with itself, but with each of the others, making 
one hundred and sixty-nine rolls, or eights, on each edge, 
or six hundred and seventy-six in all. For examples, see 
page 29, Nos. 8-15 and 41-43. (Three hundred and 
twenty-four of these are illustrated by diagrams in H 5 , p. 
51 ff.) 

Combinations of Three Elements, on Alternate 

Feet 

Combinations of three elements are of course thirteen 
times as many, or a total of 8,788 ! For examples, see 
page 30, Nos. 16-35. (Three hundred and twenty-four 
symmetrical examples of these, only the middle element 
varying, are illustrated by diagrams in H 5 , p. 61 ff. ) 

But something may be left to the imagination of the 
reader and to the ingenuity of the skater. "Although 
every possible stroke is now known," says Mr. Maxwell 
Witham, the veteran English skater,* "the multitude of 
combinations, by joining one stroke with another, is per- 
fectly endless : but whether the next generation will derive 
as much pleasure in devising these combinations as the 
pioneers in the art did in working out the simple initial 
strokes, is doubtful." Let us now briefly systematize for 
ready reference the practical strokes by which these com- 
binations are made. 

THE STROKES 

The strokes are of three types : ( 1 ) from one curve to 
another on alternate feet 5 (2) from one curve to another 
on the same foot (the turns already treated as elements) ; 
and (3) a combination of the two — a short turn on one 
foot to a curve on the other. There are four kinds of 
each: (1) on the same edge in the same direction; (2) 
in the same direction on a different edge ; ( 3 ) on the same 
edge in a different direction $ and (4) on a different edge 
in a different direction. 

1 Strokes from One Foot to the Other 
In going from a curve on one foot to a curve on the 
other, the skater may put down the unemployed foot par- 
allel with the employed, or cross it over either in front or 
behind. There are thus three strokes for each original 
edge, — twelve when the second curve is on the same edge 
as the first, and twelve when on a different edge, or twenty- 
four strokes in the same direction. Theoretically, there 

^Badminton Magazine^ Dec, 1895, P» °°8. 

5* 




are twenty-four similar strokes in an opposite direction, 
twelve on the same edge (Mohawks) and twelve on a 
different edge (Choctaws) j and twenty-four more, because 
the feet may, theoretically, be put down in the opposite 
direction, either heel to heel or toe to toe. Of this total 
of seventy -two strokes, however, only about half, for phy- 
sical or aesthetic reasons, are practically available. 

2 Strokes on One Foot (Turns) 
Of the^strokes on one foot, nothing further need be said 
here except that a properly executed turn is a great reser- 
voir of power ; and that when a skater has acquired suffi- 
cient proficiency to glide on the same foot he thrusts with, 
on either edge, forward or backward, he has at his command 
the most convenient progressive and combining stroke at- 
tainable. This is especially true of the Serpentine change 
of edge 5 and true, also, of the Three, the Bracket, the 
Rocker, and the Counter. 

3 The Turn and Stroke (Once-Back) 

Before the skater, however, has attained sufficient con- 
trol of the second curve to utilize on one foot all the power 




twice back 
and forward 



generated by the 
turn, he may save 
his power by trans- 
mitting it from the 
curve he cannot hold 
to a curve on the 
other foot, — and, 
what is more, gain 
power by the process. The substitution for the second curve 
of a forward three, for example, of a backward curve on 
the other foot — the English Once-Back (Fig. 8o) — h 




53 



such a vigorous stroke that it (or the Twice-Back, — the 
same thing repeated — Fig. 8 1 ) is used as the initial stroke 
of nearly all English combined figures. Continental skaters 
call this stroke the Engl'dnder. A "Once-Back" from a 
Counter-Three or Bracket (carried to Europe by Callie 
Curtis in 1869) they call the Amerikaner. (Fig. 83, 




83 — The "Once-Back" Strokes Skated to Place 
as Eights 

No. 6. See page 58, No. 25.) It corresponds to our 
Mohawk, which is generally skated here in place of it 5 as 
the "Once-Back" from a Rocker or Counter (Fig. 83, 
Nos. 9, 10) corresponds to our Choctaw. (See page 59, 
Nos. 33-36.) 

54 



Theoretically, twelve Once-Back strokes may be made 
from each of the one-foot turns, or two hundred and 
seventy-six in all, thus (the Pirouette-Horns are omitted): 

I. Same edge, same direction, — 72. The strokes from 
the Serpentine, Horn, Counter -Horn, Ringlet-Turn, 
Counter-Ringlet-Turn, and Counter-Pirouette. 

II. Same direction, different edge, — 48. The strokes 
from the Curve, Loop, Pirouette, and Pirouette-Loop. 

III. Same edge, different direction, — 96. The strokes 
from the Three, Counter-Three, Rocking-Horn, Counter- 
Rocking-Horn, Loop-Three, Counter-Loop-Three, Pirou- 
ette, and Pirouette Loop. 

IV. Different edge, different direction, — 60. The 
strokes from the Rocker, Counter, Beak, Counter-Beak, 
and Counter- Pirouette,— total, 276. 

Two hundred and four of this total of two hundred and 
seventy-six Once-Back strokes are illustrated by diagrams 
in H 5 , p. 74 ff. Although actual practice in the art of 
skating is gradually drawing nearer and nearer to the theo- 
retically possible, at present, realization is far short of the 
possible in the execution of the Once-Back strokes. It 
will be sufficient to consider those made from the elemen- 
tary practice movements (page 51), omitting the four 
Cross-Cuts (from which, of course, no effective stroke can 
be made, on account of the reverse curve) and adding the 
six pirouettes. These Once-Back strokes may be skated 
together, like the elements, to place as Eights (Fig. 83). 
The stroke from the Three (No. 3) is the same as the 
English " Once-Back ; " but the stroke from the Double- 
Three (No. 4. Two-Turns, the Canadian "Ransom," M. 
57) is not the same as the English "Twice -Back" 
(Fig. 81). In order to reach the center on a forward 
edge from either a "Once-Back" or a "Twice-Back," 
the skater must perform a "Once-Back and Forward," 
or "Twice-Back and Forward" (Fig. 82, from S.C. ). 

The following tables (Fig. 84), printed together here 
for the first time, will show all the strokes, at present prac- 
ticable, in relation to each other. The solid foot and the 
heavy line indicate the right foot 5 the open foot and the 
light line, the left foot. The strokes illustrated are all 
begun on the right foot. The edges and directions of all 
the strokes in each column are indicated by the letters at 
the head of each column. The first two columns are for- 
ward strokes, begun at the bottom of the diagram 5 the last 
two columns are backward strokes, begun at the top of the 
diagram. The dotted lines indicate the course of the un- 
employed just before it becomes the employed ; the dotted 
arrow, the direction of rotation of the hips and shoulders. 

55 



The Strokes 
I. Same Edge, Same Direction 

OF tO OF IF tO IF OB to OB IB tO IB 



i Parallel. 



Corresponding 
stroke on one 
foot: 
Serpentine. 



Corresponding 
turn and stroke : \ 
Once- Back J 

from Ringlet- ^J 
Turn, Counter / 
Ringlet -Turn, f 
and Counter- V 
Pirouette.* ^** 





2 Cross ( + ). 

Forward, 
in front. 
Backward, 
behind. 

Corresponding 
stroke and turn : 
Once- Back 
from Ringlet- 
Turn, Counter 
Ringlet -Turn, 
and Counter- 
Pirouette. 








*Only the Ringlet-Turn is illustrated, to save space. For 
the Ringlet, a Counter-Ringlet or Counter-Pirouette may 
be substituted. 



56 



OF tO OF IF tO IF OB tO OB IB tO IB 



3 On to Rich- 
mond (.).). 

Forward, behind. 
Backward, 
in front. 

Corresponding 
turn and stroke : 
Once-Back 
from Ringlet- 
Turn, Counter 
Ringlet -Turn, 
and Counter- 
Pirouette. 











II. Same Direction, Different Edge 

OF TO IF IF tO OF OB tO IB IB to OB 



i Parallel. 



Corresponding 
turn and stroke: 
Once-Back •— >r~"\ 
from Loop, ( Q I 
Pirouette, or J 

Pirouette- 
Loop. 



2 Lap-foot (+) 

Forward, 
in front. 
Backward, 
behind. 

Corresponding 
turn and stroke: 
Once- Back 
from Loop, 
Pirouette, or 
Pirouette- 
Loop. 





57 



3 Scratch ( X ) of to if if to of ob to ib ib to ob 

Forward, 

behind. 

Backward, 

in front. 

Corresponding 
turn and stroke: 
Once-Back 
from Loop, 
Pirouette, / $ 
Pirouette- ' 
Loop. 

III. Same Edge, Different Direction 

OF tO OB IF tO IB OB to OF IB to IF 



I Parallel. 

Mohawks 

(M). 

Heel to heel. 






Corresponding 
turns : 
Brackets, 
Threes. 



Correspond- 
ing turn 
and stroke 



of Bracket if Three ob Three ib Bracket 



X 





Once-Back Inside Once- Once-Back 

from Once-Back Forward from 

of Bracket ib Bracket 

(This Once-Back from the Bracket, of American origin, 
is the commonest initial stroke in Continental combinations. 
See Fig. 90, E. The present American form of it is the 
Mohawk. See Figs. 105-8. Mohawks and Brackets are 
difficult if the shoulders are not well flattened (English) 
and the feet * i Spread-Eagled 5 " they are most convenient 
in hand-in-hand skating, because they require no rota t' on, 
— couples can skate circling figures, facing the same way 
all the time. ) 

58 



OF tO OB IF tO IB OB to OF IB to IF 



2 Cross. 

Cross Mo- 
hawks ( + M) 
Forward, 
toe to toe. 
Backward, 
heel to heel. 



Corresponding 
turns : 

Threes and 
Brackets 

Corresponding 

turn 

and stroke: 

Once-Back 

from 




\ 




\ 



of Three if Bracket ob Bracket ib Three 



IV. Different Edge, Different Direction 

OF tO IB IF tO OB OB tO IF IB tO OF 




I Parallel. 

Choctaws 

(Ch). 

Heel to heel. 



Corresponding 
turns : 
Counters, 
Rockers. 

(The name of 
each, in the 
column below. ) 



Corresponding 
turn and stroke : 



Once-Back ^ < 

from of Counter if Rocker ob Rocker ib Counter 



KOF/ \KIF 




5° 



OF CO IB W tO OB OB to IF IB to OF 



2 Cross. 

Cross Choc- 
taw (+Ch). 

Forward, 
toe to toe. 
Backward, 
heel to heel. 



Corresponding 
turns : 
Rockers, 
Counters. 



37 






of Rocker if Counter ob Counter ib Rocker 



Corresponding 
turns and 
strokes. 



Once-Back 

from 





of Rocker if Counter ob Counter ib Rocker 



Of these strokes, combinations of 2 and 14, plain skating 
forward (Fig. 140, p. 77) and of 4 and 16, plain skating 
backward, are already familiar to the beginner; also 17, 18, 
the Lap-Foot Circle forward, and 19, 20, the Lap-Foot 
Circle backward (Figs. 142-3, p. .77). 
1 and 3 are almost impossible as parallel 
strokes, — the push -off must be given 
from a finish on the inside edge 5 they 
are usually skated as cross-strokes, 5, 7. 
The cross-strokes 6, 8, are also practi- 
cally impossible, unless the first curve 
finishes with a change to the outside 
edge for the push-off. 

The back Mohawks, 27, 28, and 
the back Choctaws, 35, 36, are familiar 
85 — Back Threes plain strokes from backward to forward. 

~ a J?£ 4. The Cross-Mohawks and Cross-Choc- 

Cross -Choctaws . _ , 

taws are in themselves difficult and awk- 
ward strokes, used only in combining other movements, — 
the Cross-Choctaws, for example, in the skating of back 
Threes to a center as Eights, 3 to 4, 6 to 1, Fig. 85. 

60 




The "On to Richmond" strokes, 9-12, so called, because 
with forward strokes you go backward (Fig. 86), and with 
backward strokes you go forward (Fig. 87), were popular 
at the time of the Civil War when they were named. As 
scratch strokes, 21-23, especially backward, skated on dif- 
ferent edges, they are most ser- 
viceable to a skater in straight- 
ening out hand-in-hand field 
figures, or in recovering from 
an edge that he cannot hold. 
They are now sometimes skat- 
ed as Eights (Figs. 88, 89), by 
the rare few who have skill to 
get momentum enough out of 
them. 

In the diagrams, the circle is 
broken to show the stroke : in 
1 at the end of a rob Circle, 
the left is crossed over in front to begin the Second Circle 
of the 8, lob ; at the conclusion of this Circle, 2, the right 
is crossed over in front to begin the rob Circle. In 3, at the 
conclusion of a lof Circle, the right is crossed over behind 
to begin a rof Circle 5 at the conclusion of which, 4, the 
left is crossed over behind to begin a lof Circle. This last 
was a specialty of Mr. Everett H. Barney as early as 1867, 
and has seldom, if ever, been skated by any one since. 







88 — The Curtis Eight 



89 — The Barney Eight 



Locomotives 

The prime function of these strokes, then, is to supply 
the transition between glides. If, however, the glide is 
reduced and the figure is skated entirely of the short strokes, 
exaggerated by the clatter of the blades on the ice, we have 
the noisy movements called "Locomotives," composed of 
straight inner and outer Mohawks and Choctaws (broken 
Serpentines,) and "On to Richmond" strokes, single, f 
and b, r and l foot leading, and double, f and b, r and l 
leading alternately. They are not beautiful, and were 
dropped in 1891 from the American schedule together with 
the "On to Richmond." 



61 



THE COMBINATION OF THE STROKES 

The combination, by these strokes, of glides on longer or 
shorter curves, with and without turns, furnishes the mate- 
rial of all the movements in progressive figure-skating. This 
combination is frequently rhythmical and the movements 
may therefore be skated to music. They comprise Marches, 
Promenade, or Dance Steps, (i) in Field, (2) in Circles, 
(3) in ordinary (perpendicular) Eights, (4) in wing (hori- 
zontal) Eights. Most of these can be skated hand-in-hand 
by one or more pairs 5 and several of them serve as the most 
effective practice exercises for the acquisition of some of the 
elementary movements and strokes, which are much easier 
performed in combination than alone, notably the turns. 



LIF 






LIB^ LOF 




90 — Common Types of Rhythmical Combi- 
nation 

(a) In field. The familiar Promenade Step, originated 
by the Misses Plimpton, daughters of the inventor of the 
roller skate (MxW, 262). (b) One of the many variations 
of it, "The Spy Pond Polka," named by Col. C. E. 
Fuller, (c) In Circle. "The Antihypochondriac " (face 
to face, MxW, 277) from Holletschek, p. ill. (d) In 
Eight. Once back and forward Eight, (e) In Wing-Eight. 
"The Jagendorp" (from H. 133, MxW, 265). 

" She can turn, and turn, and still go on 
And turn again."— Othello, 4,1, 264. 



62 



Practice Field Steps : 91, iob change spectacles, -with 
scratch strokes (Callie Curtis); 92, f Counters, Cross- 
Strokes, and ob Threes; 93-5, Russian (Finnish) Figures : 
93, Cross-Choctaws and ib Threes ; 94, Pirouettes and 
Cross Strokes; 95, Counter Pirouettes and Parallel Strokes. 




93 



94 



98 



99 



Practice Eights: 96, if and once-back; 97-98, On to 
Richmond and Scratch Strokes and ob Threes; 99, f and 
b Brackets, with Scratch Strokes. 

63 





IOO 



IOI 



100, Practice Eights for Mohawks and f Counters; 101, 
Practice Eights for Mohawks and b Rockers. 




Practice Eights : 102, f Rockers and b Brackets ; 103, 
f Mohawks and ib Counters; 104, Counter Spectacles, 
practice for Rockers and Counters, very difficult. 




Practice Eights: 105, if change Mohawks, Scratch 
Stroke, and ib Q^s; 106, f Mohawks and ob Q^s ; 107, 
f Mokawks and ob Double-three Q.'.&f 10&, f Mohawks, 
ob Loop Q v s, and b Choctaws. 



64 




HAND-IN-HAND SKATING 

This kind of skating ought to be more popular in this 
country where, after the first snow comes, the available 
skating surfaces are small. The increase of artificially 
frozen ice-rinks has been the means of popularizing this 
style in England (at the expense of the traditional com- 
bined skating) to such an extent that a whole new book 
on it has recently been published (H-H., p. 19), and 
large space is devoted to it in the latest English books 
(cf. MxW., chap, xv, and M-W., chap. viii). 

There are three methods of 
holding hands : 

i. Side by Side, one hand 4.. 
joined : partners facing same way, 
r to l ; facing opposite ways, r j | 
to r, or l to L j both hands joined 
(crossed), r to r and l to l. 

2. Face to face, one hand\^\ 
joined, one partner skating r, the 
other b, r to r or l to l; both 
hands joined : one partner skating 
f, the other b, r to l and l to r 5 
both skating sidewise (vis-a-vis), 
R to L^LtOR. I0 9 - Echelon 

3. Front and behind, or side by side, one slightly 
in advance of the other, both hands joined, as in Fig. 109, 
from H-H., 20, by permission. 

In side-by-side skating, whether one hand or both hands 
are joined, the skater on the outer circumference must, just 
before a turn, get in advance or take the lead 5. the turn, 
however, must be made by both at the same time. That 
the stronger skater may always lead, the positions, which 
change after a turn, may be restored by a pull and a pass, 
the hands being loosed at the pull and joined again just be- 
fore the stroke is taken up on the other foot, when the 
skaters will be in the same relative position as before. Some- 
times hand-in-hand skaters are in a false position for the 
next stroke; for example, if at end of a Forward-Three 
when both are on rib, gentleman leading, lady on his right, 
a lob is taken, the false position may be remedied in two 
ways: 1, the gentleman- without loosing hands may swing 
his partner around into the leading position, both on the 
lob ; or 2, the skaters may as soon as both are on the lob 
loose hands, turn their bodies irtt) the correct position, and 
then, joining hands on the other side, continue on the lob. 
This is called a Reverse. Lock passes and reve- ses are 
made without loosing hands, Echelon fashion. See Figs. 
110-114. 




LOF 



C * 







i of * L °r 

110-14 — Hand-in-Hand Skating (from H-H, kindness of 
Longmans & Co.) 

Fig. no, Once-Back with Swing, and forward (side by 
side) ; 1 1 1 , The Rocker-Pass (side by side) ; 1 12, Once-Back 
with Swing and Pass, and Once-Back with Reverse (side 
by side ); 113, The Q^Lock Reverse (Echelon); 114, The 
Double Mercury (face to face). Cf. Fig. 115. 

The simplest form of side-by-side skating is the outside 
edge-roll and the cross-roll forward, then the promenade 
(varied by the insertion of Mohawks, turns, and changes of 
edge), and the once back and forward (waltzing) 5 of the 
face-to-face skating, the same rolls (one skated forward, the 
other backward), the Mercury, the Pigeon Wings, or Q 
Scuds. (Figs. 1 1 5-1 17, from M-W. 272, by permission. ) 

66 



In the Mercury, 
one partner skates 
Once-back and r, 
the other Once- 
back and b ; so that 
one is skating the 
f cross -roll while 
the other is skating 
the b cross - roll. 
The skater who is 
going b pulls his 
partner at the turn, 
who comes round 
with a swish that 
is most exhilarat- 
ing. Many ladies 
who are not strong 





Q and REVER8E Q 80Utt 
116 

on the b cross-roll may enjoy 
the figure if they start f; but 9 ftnd 8ACK SCWD ' 
they should not essay the Fly- IX ? 

ing Mercury until strong on ob. Q Scuds we 
call Pigeon Wings. Skaters in Figs. 1 1 5-7 are 
mercury souo. constantly revolving round each other. 

PAIR-SKATING 

Another variety of skating for two, growing in popu- 
larity, is a combination of hand-in-hand skating with skat- 
ing apart, the skaters often crossing, meeting, and touching 
or joining hands. It is a reversion to early American com- 
bination skating (Swift and Clark, pp. 66-72), in which 
all join in a center circle and then skate apart. This kind 
of skating provides the skater with as good "opportunity 
for the display of individual skill and of skill in adapting 
himself with precision to the powers of others" as English 
combined skating ; and, what is more, gives opportunity, as 
English combined skating does not, for the performance of 
small curved figures, as well as large ones. Two skaters, 
for example, may skate such three-lobed eights as Fig. 10, 

67 



Nos. 2, 6, 7, 12-15, 41-43, clasping hands on the middle 
curves; and by loosing hands just before the turns and join- 
ing just before starting on the other foot, may skate together 
movements like Figs. 11 8-1 31. The insertion of ^ , ^, 
full, and ij4, revolutions, renders all of the turns available 
for pair-skating, with no limit to the variety possible in the 
movements apart. 






Figs. 118-131 — Pair-Skating » Elementary). See p. 112 

Further illustration of these types will be given in the next 
chapter. But before we leave the elements to take up the 
figures in detail, there are one or two other general matters 
of importance that we may best treat of here. 

THE POSITION OF THE FEET 

In going from a curve on one foot to a curve on the 
other, the skater will find that in order to secure a graceful 
swing and a continuous glide without a hitch or kick, the 
feet must be put down on continuing or on parallel lines. 
In order to secure this parallelism, as will be seen by observ- 
ing the position of the feet, marked for this very purpose in 
diagrams (p. 56, Nos. 1-40), one foot or the other or both 
must be turned farther in or farther out than is natural in 
walking or in plain skating. Ability to turn the toes out 
nearly, if not quite, at right angles, is almost essential to the 
clean performance of the Cross-Rolls, Mohawks, Choc- 
taws, Brackets, Rockers, Counters, Pivot- Circles, and 
almost all continuous figures. It is not absolutely neces- 
sary to be able to turn both feet out at once, as in Figs. 132-3. 

68 



But even the so-called * * weak ' * ankles can be trained to 
perform all that is required of them by a little practice at 
home before the ice comes. Herein, the English style is 
of the utmost service to American beginners. 





132 — Spread Eagle 



133 — Spread Eagle 



132, J. F. Bacon, just after a complete revolution in the 
air, and therefore not yet quite erect. 133, L. A. Servatius, 
in Cross-foot Combination Spread Eagle.* 

POSITION OF HEAD AND SHOULDERS 

For example, stand en the right foot and look along the 

right shoulder 5 stiffen the right leg, and on the ankle as a 

, pivot rotate the left shoulder and hip as far 

_ , back as possible, bending the left leg just enough 

? to raise the toe from the floor, — the toe point- 

ing downward and backward, the calves touching. Actual 
motion in a curve on the ice will cause the skater to lean 
slightly in order to preserve his equilibrium 5 otherwise, the 
extreme backward position is the correct (English) position 
for large forward edges on the right foot, inside (Fig. 149) 
or outside (Fig. 159) according to inclination. 
_ , , .Repeat the exercise, only look along the 

_ , left shoulder. This is the position for large 

® backward edges, inside or outside, according 

to inclination. (Figs. 164, 167.) The striking differ- 
ence in the two chief positions, therefore, is that the head, 

* Servatius* Combination Spread Eagle starts with plain 
straight spread, then changes to straight with feet crossed 
as in Fig. 133; next changes to double Serpentine, then to 
Serpentine with one fnot and straight with the other, alter- 
nately, feet still crossed; finishing with toes pointing in. 
Another variation is starting heel to heel, as in Fig. 133, 
change to toe to heel backward, then toe to heel forward, 
then heel to heel, legs straight; next changing to cross-foot, 
and finish with toes in, — all without a break. Servatius 
skates a curved Spread Eagle, toes in, with knees touching. 
But these are acrobatic feats rather than artistic skating, 
and should have been dropped from our schedule in 189T. 

69 



Forward 
Three 



which is always turned in the direction of progression, looks 
over the employed shoulder on forward, and over the 
unemployed shoulder, on backward edges. 

If, however, the edges are the beginnings of turns, the 
position of the head and shoulders is determined not by the 
normal requirements of the first curve, but by the rotation 
necessary to make the turn and by the pose necessary to 
maintain the resulting curve. Thus, as a home exercise 
for ankle, head, and shoulder action in a for- 
ward three or rocker : stand in the position for 
outside forward (Fig. 159). Keep the eyes 
fixed on some distant object, while rotating the left shoulder 
forward, (Fig. 204), until 
just before the foot, if on 
the ice, would have to turn 
(the turn on the floor may 
be made by lifting the heel 
and letting the rotation of 
the shoulders pull the foot 
round) $ just before, or dur- 
ing the turn, draw the left 
shoulder back into position 
" for the inside back edge, and 
keep the eyes still fixed on 
134 — Position for the same object, looking now 135— Position for 
Three or Rocker over the i e ft shoulder. This Bracket, Counter 

will help keep the tail of the three on the ice large. 

If, instead of inclining upon the inside edge 

back at the turn, the skater holds the body 

erect, and carries the heel round 180 or more, 

drawing back the shoulder will then draw him on to the 

outside back, and the turn will be a rocker (Fig. 233) 

instead of a three (Fig. 231). 

Stand now in the same outside forward position, but 
instead of rotating the shoulders forward for the turn (Fig. 

Forward I34 ^' rotate them ^ to * r ^( Fi S- *35) : The 





Forward 
Rocker 



Bracket 



head will now have to follow the left shoulder 



Forward 
Counter 



round into the normal position for the back 
edges, which will be outside, if the heel is not lifted (a 

Counter, Fig. 234); inside, if the heel is lifted 

and carried well round and out at the turn (a 

Bracket, Fig. 232). 
"It is excellent practice," Wood says (p. 40), "to 
make the turns in front of a looking-glass without any 
skates on at all. By means of the glass, the beginner can 
see for himself that he gets into the correct body position 
for making the turn 5 and, making the turn on the carpet, 
he can see (as he cannot on the ice) that he secures the 
correct position for the new edge. He will find that the 



70 



familiarity with the correct position which he thus gains 
will greatly assist him when on the ice." 

Get the differences firmly fixed in your mind, like the 
cautions in regard to your golf-strokes. Thus you will 
remember that for 

rof Threes and Rockers, the rotation is forward. 

rof Brackets and Counters, the rotation is backward. 

rif Threes and Rockers, the rotation is backward. 

rif Brackets and Counters, the rotation is forward. 

rob Threes and Rockers, the rotation is backward. 

rob Brackets and Counters, the rotation is forward. 

rib Threes and Rockers, the rotation is forward. 

rib Brackets and Counters, the rotation is backward. 

Fig. 136* will show the angle of shoulder rotation and 
the extent to which the ankle turning should be trained. 



A 



O* ** 



s _0 , 



;j 



5 V* 






*1 



• • 



'.<?<>' 



ANGLE V 
of Left \. 

SHOULDER '* %% 

<» VNE/M PLOYED** • I, 

Poor O* THE EOG£TJ 



A 



* 









1 

1 1 

' 1 

1 



1 va'p* 






A 



00 1 



0\ 






S 1 
o 



. ..»- 



J-- 



I3 6— The Degree of "English," to be put on the Shoul- 
ders and Ankles in the performance of large 
Edges and Turns 

Another gymnastic exercise for opening the ankles is to 
stand on one foot and rotate the other from the heel as far 
back as possible (Fig. 137, 1.) ; or to stand as long as the 
muscles will permit with both heels and calves together and 

« *Based on S. C. p. 20, kindness of Macmillan & Co. The 
line of the Rocker and Counter and the line of the Three 
and Bracket, however, should change places.) 



71 



the toes turned out as far as possible (Fig. 137, 2). Even 
more practical is to walk forward toeing in as far as possi- 
ble (Fig. 137, 3), and backward toeing out (Fig. 137, 4). 
It is a wise precaution to get one's boots and skates ready 
early in the season ; and practice like the above on an old 
carpet, ivith the skates on, will be found most helpful and 
economical in securing also that great essential, balance. 

BALANCE 

The acquisition of the balance required for large curves 
on the ice is not only no hindrance to the acquisition of the 
balance required for small curves, but an extraordinary sav- 
ing of time and effort in the attainment of the ankle action 
and knack necessary for the graceful execution of continuous 
figures. It is easy to learn the balance required for short 
curves after learning the balance required for long curves ; 
but if beginners learn to skate with a violent swing of arms 




137— Practice for " Spread-Eagling " the Ankles 

and leg, with head bowed down and knees bent, their 
progress will be slow and their form bad. "However, the 
beginner must not worry too much about style ; style is too 
complex; but he should and must remember that style 
depends very largely upon a thorough mastery of the ele- 
ments upon true principles" (R. 68). 

The table* opposite (Fig. 138) will be of service to the 
beginner in testing his balance. If he finds himself off the 
approximate position indicated, and shifting unsteadily, he 
is warned that the attitude of the body above his feet must 
be incorrect. For the execution of large curves and turns, 
the carriage of the head and shoulders contributes most to 
the proper balance, the arms and unemployed leg being less 
active ; for the execution of smaller curves and continuous 
figures, the head and shoulders are less active, and the 
proper balance is aided by the action of the arms and unem- 
ployed thigh, leg, and foot. 

* Based upon observations of the skating of Mr. A. F. 
Hulbert, the first winner of the British Special Test (p. 
38). From M-W. pp. 66 and 239, by permission of A. D. 
Innes & Co's successors, Ward, Lock & Co., London. 

72 



138 — Shift of Balance in the Various Figures 
Bearing Surface of the Skate-blade 




«<. -u ST, 

^-TRAVELLING 



i 4 — B ^t#t 



AREA— ^-STRIKING AREAl 



A, In front of Travelling 
Area. 



Travelling 
Area. 



b Changes of Edge, contin- 
uous stroke; of Bracket. 
ib Loop; f Cross-Cuts and 
Beaks, end first forward curve 

B, Front Third. \ £ U *" f Turns ("^ 0F 
■ \ Bracket). 

ob and ib Edges; 
ob Loop; f Cross-Cuts, 
backward base; f and b 
Beaks, backward curves. 

of and if Edges; 

of and if Loops; f Cross- 



es Front Half. 



D, Back Half. 



E, Back Third. 



F, Behind the Travelling 
Area. 



Cuts, forward curves ; B 
Cross-Cuts, forward base; f 
and b Beaks, forward curves. 

All b Turns (except those 
below, on F) ; 
b Cross-Cuts and Beaks, end 
of first backward curve. 

f Changes of Edge, contin- 
uous stroke, ib Three, and 
b Brackets. 



BOOTS AND SKATES 

A good skater never wears straps or very sharp skates ; 
and he never complains of weak ankles. Did you ever hear 
a skater complain of weak knees, or weak hips ? 

Boots 

His shoes, however, must not be too high, and must fit. 
The eyelets should go well down toward the toe, so that 
if the upper stretches, the edges may be brought together 
by tighter lacing. (Always carry an extra lacing.) A 
thick tongue, or a pad under the tongue, may render a 
loose shoe serviceable or a stiff one comfortable. Congress 
or button boots are of course woichless for skaters of either 



sex. 



73 



Skates 

The difference between the two schools of skating has 
been due not only to national differences of temperament, 
but also to the difference in the skates used. Until within 
two or three years the English have used exclusively a right- 
angled blade ground to a 7 -ft. radius, sometimes with con- 
cave sides (Dowler blades, narrow at middle and thicker at 
ends). Continental skaters use 5- or 5 ^ -ft. radius skates, 
often with convex sides (blades %-m* thick at bearing 
point, tapering to j/g-in. at ends). The flat skate contrib- 
utes to a stable equilibrium, permitting large curves on un- 
bent knee in a quiet pose ; the sharp rock skate causes 
unstable equilibrium and requires a bent knee and a swing 
of arms and unemployed foot to maintain balance on short 
curves. Salchow (Fig. 12) uses a parallel sided blade, flat 
in the middle for big curves and turns and sharper at both 
ends for loops, cress-cuts, and beaks. Most American 
rocker skates in stock patterns of all grades are ground to a 
radius of 4- or 4^-ft ! a fact which is alone sufficient ex- 
planation of the difficulty popularly associated with figure- 
skating, and for the persistence of the " weak-ankle * * 
fiction. Beginners should not use a sharper rock than a 
7-ft. radius. When the proper balance is acquired, one can 
make just as big curves and maintain just as accurate bal- 
ance on a 6-ft. radius blade, and also can do the shorter 
rink curves and turns and continuous skating much easier. 

The most serviceable single blade for all purposes is a 
6-ft. rock, right angle edge, Barney & Berry heel-button 
mount (Fig. 138), with an extra long outside toe-clamp. 
A self-fastening skate is useless for figure-skating, unless it 
has a universal sidewise adjustment 5 for the blade should 
be under the ball of the foot, not under the middle of the 
sole. A skate should not be longer than the boot, even 
for u children to grow to 5" the point of the blade should 
just be visible to the skater when standing erect. 

Messrs. Barney & Berry will supply you at a slight extra 
cost with a 7, a 6, or a 5 '-ft. radius blade 5 and at a reasona- 
ble price during the summer* will grind your -skates and 
re-nickel them in a thorough and workman-like manner. 
Never send a good pair of skates to a hardware shop or a 
repairer, to be ground on a small, coarse emery wheel ; it 
may be cheaper and more convenient, but the blade is gen- 
erally left grooved and rough, — practically worthless for 
artistic skating. 

" Steel, if thou turn the edge, or cut not, I be- 
seech on bended knees thou mayst be turned to 
hobnails."— Shakspere, 2 H. V7 t 4, 10, 59. 

* See their catalogue (page 40), which will be sent fre« on 
application. 

14. 




if Eight. ^JAlex: v. Panschin, Russian Champion, Feb. 1900 

*' Master o' the liolls."— Henry VII, 5, t, 35. 

" Tis a good form." — Timon of Athens, 1, 1, 17. 




Gilbert Fuchs (Munich Skating Club), St. Petersburg, 1896 

" In form and moving how express and admirable! " 

— Hamlet, 2, 2, 317. 




rob Spiral "Alesander," A. Pamn, in the Yusupov 
Garden, St. Petersburg, 1897 

" The great swing- and rudeness of his poise." 
— Troilus and Cress Ida, 1,3, 208. 




lob. F. Otto, Berlin Skating Club, Jan. 14, 1900 

" He apprehends a world of figures he'r'ife, 
But not the form." — I Henry IV, 1, 3, 210. 

"His arms spread wider than a dragon's wings." 

— I Henry VI y i, 1, 11. 



PART III * HOW TO DO IT 



Brief Hints and Cautions for Use on the Ice, 
With References to the Best Literature for 
Detailed Descriptions and Illustrations. 

Note. — It is taketi for granted that the reader can do 
plain skating and the lap.foot circles , and has read of 
Part I at least pages 14, 28, 40, and of Part II, about the 
Elements and Strokes, especially pages 68-74. 




J*Z> 



PlMN SKATING- 

I40 



"»«»</«,. ^£ 



Abbreviations : b == Backward ; f = Forward 5 1 = 
Inside Edge ; o = Outside Edge ; l = Left Foot 5 r =s Right 
Foot rof = Right Outer Forward ; lib =. Left Inner Back- 
ward; Empl. = Employed, foot on the ice; Unempl.= 
Unemployed, foot off the ice. B == Bracket ; C=Counter ; 
Ch = Choctaws ; M = Mohawks ; R == Rocker ; S == 
Serpentine, or Change of Edge ; 3 — Three-Turn ; -j- = 
Cross Stroke (f, in Front; b, Behind); X = Scratch 
Stroke (f, behind, usually outside edge, — Reverse On to 
Richmond, 4. ; b, in front, usually inside edge, = On to Rich- 
mond). For abbreviations to books, etc., see pp. 18, 19. 

* Observe that the thrust is made when the 
feet are at an angle of about 45 ° (Figs. 140 
and 141). fff Do not thrust off the toe, as 
in walking. Observe also that progression on 
the ice is made not only by thrusting with 




iV" 



r^.7 



\ 



i 






j 



142— Lap-Foot Circles— 143 

3^ -^ one foot and sliding on the other, but also by 

*4i crossing one foot over the other and sliding 

on each in turn (Figs. 142 and 143), — both ways in curved 

lines on the edge of the blade. One of the requirements of 



77 



the Ameriean schedule (No. I, Plain Skating) is skating 
on the flat of the blade (Fig. 144). This requires great 
nicety of balance, for it allows neither thrust nor edge. 
Observe that the motive power, then, 
must come entirely from the momen- 
tum imparted by the swing of the body. 
The combination of this momentum 
with an edge instead of with the flat 
of the skate, without obvious thrust, is 
the proper motive power of the most 
graceful and easy figure-skating. This 
combination may be best learned from 
an easy two-foot movement, called the 
two-foot Serpentine, or Sculling (Fig. 
145). Rotate the shoulders, and shift 
the weight from one foot to the other 
— to the right foot when the right shoulder goes forward, 
to the left foot when the left shoulder goes forward j at the 
same time tilt the body f and b as in 
walking, but instead of taking the feet 
up alternately, slide on both feet, inside 
edges. Prolong the slide, and just as 
the forward inside edges are catching the 
power (near the heel) the other edge 
will become the flat of the blade ( Fig. 
146). Slide still longer, until the lobes 146 




144— On the Flat 





intersect (Fig. 
Sculling tum the ankle 

flat will become outside 
be skating both inside 
once. (The thickened 
indicates the power edge 5 
148 is shifting from R to 
power 5 in Fig. 147, from 
catching power. ) When 
good speed, a backward 



147) Two- Foot 

and the Serpentine 
edge, and you will 
and outside edges at 
line in the diagram 
the skater in Fig. 
L, after catching 
L to R, just before 
you have acquired 
twist of the left 




*-0*V\ RTF 

147— Intersecting Two Foot Serpentine 

78 




1? *= 

148 
Two-Foot 
Serpentine 





-RIF 



shoulder at *, Fig. 147, will pull the left foot off the ice, and 
you may continue on the rif in good form (Fig. 149). 
A similar twist at f, Fig. 147 (without En- 
glish, p. 81), will give you a lof (Fig. 150). 
The backward edges on one foot may be 
developed in the same way from a backward 
two-foot Serpentine, same movements except 
that power is caught near the toe of the blade. 
These Serpentines may be skated with the 
feet tracking instead of parallel, but a much 
nicer balance is required. By throwing one foot 
out of line ( Fig. 151), you may 
be encouraged to trust your en- 
tire weight upon the other, and 
finally to lift one foot clear of 
the ice and continue on a f or 
b edge on the other foot with- 
out thrust. 
A commoner way to learn the edges is to 
prolong the glide from a thrust. jf Begin 
by learning to glide on one foot as long as 
you can. iff Learn the edges 
skating alone, depending en- 
tirely upon yourself, or only 
on the aid of a friendly hockey x ^" 
stick, held between tivo skaters in front. 
jf Keep the unempl. turned down and out, 
near the ice, and behind the empl. 

INSIDE EDGE FORWARD 

Roll (Half-Circles). M-W. 70 4 ; MxW. 
106 21 ; B67 13 ; S.C. 30 1 ; R 7. Keep 
center of gravity over the empl. by standing 
erect, with unempl. behind 
turned well out (Fig. 149). 
Turn the toes ivell out anddoivn 
(Fig. 9, p. 28) for the next 
stroke, which should be taken before the im- 
petus for the first curve is spent, and at right*-'* 
angle to the line of progress (Fig. 152). 
if Don't skate full front, with legs a-straddle, 
feet parallel ( Figs. 153-4). 

Ei^ht (Full-Circles). M-W. 8i 8 ;MxW. 
1 08 2 2 j B. 69 * 5 ; S.C. 3 3 8 . Keep your eye 
on the center when skating to place in Eight 
(Fig. 155). Seep. 75. Skate first circle of 
double Eight (Fig. 156) with empl. knee 
bent j then straighten it, and increase failing _ T . . 
momentum by forward swing of unempl. into Serpentine 




79 



position for next stroke, fff Don't " un- 
wind" too soon — keep the unemployed back 
as long as possible. 






152 — if Roll 

Right Figure 



153 — if Roll 
Wrong Figure 



154 
Wrong Position 





155— if Eight 



156 — if Double Eight 



OUTSIDE EDGE FORWARD 

Roll. M-W. 72 5 ; MxW. 114 25 ; B. 74 24 * 5 i s - 
C. 31 x ; R. 73,76. Develop from lap-foot (Figs. 142-3), 
or cross-step (Fig. 137,3), turning toes well in, which 
compels an outside edge in full half-circle (Figs. 157-8). 
if Don't push from the toes. 

* To acquire good balance 

^.^ and strong, large curves 

on plain roll, English the 
; shoulders (Fig. 159) and 
' look over empl. shoulder 
(Fig. 160). If you swing 
the unempl. foot (Figs. 
1 61-162), Mf don't carry 
it high or far in front of 
. empl. Bring the empl. 
'• quietly forward (the corres- 
: ponding shoulder with it) ; 
..' and, looking in the direc- 
tion in which you are 
going to strike, turn over 
on to the inside edge and 
strike immediately, without Serpentine. §T Don't kick, or 
curl up the unemployed behind. 

80 





157 
Cross- Roll 



158 
Cross-Roll 



Eight. Fig. 10, No. i, p. 29. M-W. 72 5 5 MxW. 

76 26 - 7 ; S. C. 33 9 ,- R. 73. Easiest 



116 26 ; B. 



73 22 > 



as a Cross-Roll. MxW. 118 29 , 121 31 ; B. 71-9 
S. C. 38. iff For double circle, don't "wind up' 
soon — keep the unemployed back as long as possible. 



_ Q 19-33 . 

too 





159 — Shoulders sidcwise. 
Quiescent unemployed 
foot. (English,) 



160 — Shoulders sidewise. 
Head looking over em- 
ployed shoulder. 




161— Outside Edge Roll 




162 — Shoulders and head 
full front. Free swing- 
ing unemployed foot. 

( American) 
See Frontispiece. 



OUTSIDE EDGE BACKWARD 

Fig. 163. M-W. 77*; MxW. 117; S. C. 40; R. 
74. Roll. Best learned from an inside forward three 
(Fig. 207), or practice step, Fig. 137,4, walking back- 
ward. The stroke from the strict outside back is from a bit of 
final inside 5 but the roll is usually skated with a kind of 
cross stroke, only one foot is dropped, heels out, into posi- 
tion on the traveling edge, not across, but exactly behind the 

81 



other, the body swing from ob to ob being quite sufficient 
to supply momentum, without any thrust. The transition 
step is illustrated in Figs. 164-5. *f Do not hurry. 
Throw yourself well on to the traveling edge boldly at the 
start, fff Don't cross unemployed too far over. 




164 

ob, Just Before 

Shift 




*^. 




X63 — OB Roll 



165 

ob, Just After 
Shift 



Eight. B. 76-Q 28 - 33 , S. C. 38, M-W 81, MxW. 
118, R. 76. This Eight is hard to skate to place, be- 
cause it is difficult to see where you are going, — and hard 
to make large, because the stroke is not strong. #f If you 
find yourself curling into the center too soon looking over 
l shoulder, get off the hard edge by turning the head until 
you can see center over the r shoulder, and then change 
back (W. 22). 

INSIDE EDGE BACKWARD 

Roll. M-W 74-7, MxW no23. b. 701*; S.C. 36; 
R. 72-35 W. 21. Easiest to learn from a forward-three 
(Fig. 205). Hardest edge 
to perfect, especially in Eight, 
because a powerful stroke is 
difficult. If unempl. is carried 
behind, toes down and out, 
head turned in direction of 
progress (Figs. 167, 205), 
this position must be abandoned 
at the stroke. Some skaters 
(like Mr. Evans), therefore, 
advise carrying the unempl. 
in front all the time. 





i66-ib Roll, Eight. M-W. 82 7 ; Mx- 167-iBRoll, 

Start W. no 24 5 B. 81 18 . In the Underway 

double circle Eight, the unemployed must be kept in front 

as long as possible. In a large single Eight there is time 

to carry the unemployed back. Fig. 166 shows an awk- 

82 



ward stroke, feet apart, chiefly by body swing; the unem- 
ployed is then slowly carried back into position (Fig. 167) 
until +he curve is at right angle to line of progress; then 
it is put down parallel wirh the employed ; and if kept 
close to it, may receive strong thrust from the employed as 
it leaves the ice. But at best, it is a very awkward and 
difficult movement, jf The flatter the body is " Eng- 
lished" — to get the line of shoulders and skate parallel — 
and the farther the head is turned in the direction of mo- 
tion, the easier to hold the curve out (W. 22). 

" The vilest stroke." 

— Shakspere, King- John, 4, 3, 48. 

CHANGE OF DIRECTION — TURNS 




168 — Change of Direction on Two Feet 

I. On Two Feet. The progression of the body 
in Fig. 168 is in a general Serpentine line from A to B; 
if at C, when nearly all the weight is on the left inner 

edge, the body is 

given a half- turn by 

the rotation of hips 

and shoulders ( assisted 

perhaps by the arms) 

the direction of the 
\ skates is thereby 

changed from f to b. 

If, now, this turn or 

Three* is inserted at 

the right time in a 

Chain - Serpentine, 

Fig. 169, the result 

is the simple Grape- 
vine (Fig. 171). Ob- 
169 — Chain serve the edges and 
Serpentine the alternation of the 
leading foot in 169 and in 170 

— a combination in an Eight i7o-"Wudel-Wudel" 
of 168 and 169. The secret of 




MP 




(H 247.) 



*" Fit for her turn, which the base vulgar 
do call ■ Three.* " — Shakspere, T. S. t 1, 2, 
170, L. L. Z., 1, 2, 51. 



83 



The Grapevine 

Is a semi-circular swing of the body above the hips, which 
perpetuates the momentum generated by the pull of the 




X71 — The Simple Grapevine 

heels together (exaggerated in the Scissors, Figs. 172-3), 
and the push of the toes (exaggerated in the Chinee e 
Grapevine, Figs. 174-5) according to 
the diagrams which, followed carefully 
on the ice, will serve bet- 
ter than any description. 
(ButCf. M-W. 263 s3 ; 
MxW. i84 1 43 ; B. 129- 
54 32 118 ; M. 79 30 ). Get 
up speed with a chain ser- 
entine, right foot leading, 
and insert a turn from for- 
ward to backward. The 
secret of success is in the 
172 — The Scissors— 173 temporary awkward posi- 
tion of the feet at A, Fig. 171, heels together, the right 
just after the turning, the left just before. Now while the 
right foot catches power with a strong edge near the toe 
(aided by a backward twist of the right shoulder), the left, 






HEEl 



♦FLIP ON I «— %Q> 

LEFT HEEL AT 2 ° 



174— b Chinese Grapevine 175— f Chinese Grapevine 

84 




receiving most of the weight of the body, acts as a pivot, 
turns slowly backward, and follows the right in a cross 
serpentine line. The right, now changed to ob, slows up, 

and allows the left, 
while changing to ib, 
to pass it. 

Then comes the 
176— The Rail Fence (a compressed more difficult turn, 
Single Grapevine) from backward t0 for _ 

ward. The right foot turns first, and the secret of success 
is in the temporary awkward position of the feet at B, toes 
in. Aided by a forward thrust of the right shoulder, the 
right foot catches power near the heel 5 and the left, re- 
ceiving most of the weight, acts as a pivot, turns slowly 
forward, and follows the right as at the start. If the left 
foot precedes the right, the progression will be made from 
left to right, instead of from right to left. When this 
grapevine is perfected, it may be skated more easily and 
gracefully all on the outside edge. 



FLIP OH mn. 
CV-. 




177 




178 



%F\ 




180 

Double Grapevines: 177, with flip of foot — three-point; 
178, with loop inside ; 179, with loop outside ; 180, with 
double loop. 

A whole revolution of the body produces the Double 
Grapevine (M-W. 264 s4 5 M. 8o 32 $ MxW. i85 144 -5; 
B. I33 ii9-20) f (Figs. 177-9.) A revolution and a half 
produces the variety illustrated in Fig. t8o. The flip of the 
foot of Fig. 177 is characteristic of the Philadelphia Twist 
(Fig. 181, M-W. 266 86 5 M. 83 s4 ; MxW. i87 14 e. 

85 



181 — Philadelphia Twist 

B. 134 121 ). In Fig. 182, the rotation of the body above 
the hips is just going to carry the right foot round, assisted 

by a flip of the ankle, — < 

the complete revolution 

leaving four points up. If 

at the first grapevine turn 

(A, Fig. 1 83) the left foot 

is turned first (Fig. 184) 

and the right swings round 

parallel with it by a half 

revolution of the body, the 

points C D will be inside 

A B. If the curve A B 

intersects C D (as it will, 

if the turns are made with 

the legs wide apart) the 

result is the Scissors Grape- 
vine ( not the Scissors, Fig. 

172). Fig. 183, made 

with the rof crossed over 

the lif and turning first 

at C instead of at A, the 184— Left Foot 

lif turning at A instead of Turnin & First 
at C, is the Pennsylvania Grapevine (M-W. 265 s5 5 M. 
8333 . MxW. 190 149 ). I or other varieties of Grapevine, 
see page 102. 





182 — Philadel- 
phia Twist 




183 — Four-point Grapevine 

II. From One Foot to the Other. /. With- 
out change of edge , Mohawks, "the Spread Eagle in Solu- 
tion." M-W. 119 20 ; MxW. i22 33 5 B. 79 34 5 S. C. 
60 22 j R. 89 15 ; W. 37. Start on a firm, large outer edge 
forward, right foot ; 
flatten (English) the 
shoulders into the 
plane of the right 
skate by carrying the 
left shoulder way back; 
turn the toe of the left 
foot as far out as pos- 
sible (Figs. 189-90). 





185 



186 



187 



188 



By a gentle tilt of the body, shift the weight from the right 



86 



foot to the left (Fig. 191). If your shoulders are flat 
enough, the left foot will be in position to drop neatly on 





192 a 

Forward Mohawk (showing 
unemployed foot) 



1 go 
Forward Mohawk 

to the outside edge back behind the right foot, which then 
becomes the unemployed. 

Put only the toe of the skate down first : the body will 
then give the rest of the foot its correct direction in nearly 
the same curve as that 
of the first edge ( Fig. 
192). If, however, 
you start your first 
outer edge with a nat- 
ural forward rotation 
of the left shoulder, 
you cannot shift to 
the other foot without an awkward jump, or without put- 
ting both feet on the ice at once 5 but this is an alternate 
foot figure. 

To do the if Mohawk (Fig. 186), place lib behind 
the rif alongside, and with the feet thus locked, shift the 
weight as before. This is a common stroke in hand-in- 
hand skating. (Cf. the familiar Spy Pond Po/ka, p. 62, 
Fig. 90, b). The back Mohawks (Figs. 
1 87-8) are familiar strokes from ob to of and 
IB to if, which are made easier if, just before 
the stroke, the body is turned very much 
rof lob roun d m tne direction of motion (W. 40). 
192 b If, in doing a rof Mohawk, you rotate the 

Amerikaner l shoulder, hip, and leg so far back as to force 
° r t^S n v? neI ^ a turn > by lifting the r heel you can get a 
strong thrust from a short rib on to the lob. 
This vigorous stroke is the " Amerikaner" of Continental 
skaters, which they got from Callie Curtis in 1869 (see 
p. 58). It seems very improbable that it did not occur at 

87 




once to^he American, or to his foreign imitators, Co prolong 
the rib and skate the movement all on one foot — the f 
Bracket, — but we have no printed record of a Bracket 
until 1880! (See p. 48.) 







ig4 — if 



195— OB 



2. With Change of Edge, Choctaivs. 



196 

M-W. 122 



IB 



21 



MxW. 



123 35 , 



oar 



B. 8i«° 5 s. C. 61; R. 89, W. 37. 
If the left is put down in the same way as in the Mohawk, 
only on the inside edge back (Fig. 197), the figure is the 
forward Choctaw. 
There are four Choc- 
taws (Figs. 193-6). 

The back Choctaws 
(Figs. 195-6) are fa- 
miliar strokes ob to 197-Choct aw (showing unempl. foot) 

if, ib to of, used in ..« -v*\— .. 

connecting f and b 
Threes. Fig.85,p.6o. 
If the unempl. is 
carried around in front » 




LOB. 



198— Cross Mohawk 



*.©* 




and put down, toes in, 
not perhaps without a 
slight jump, the result 
is the awkward con- 
necting stroke called c»" 
the Cross Mohawk, 199-Cross Choctaw 

Fig. 198, without change of edge, and the Cross Choc- 
taw, Fig. 199, with change of edge. 

III. On One Foot — The Four Turns. Review 
the details of position, etc. ,on pp. 69-70. Remember that in 
all the turns the body must turn the feet, not the feet the 
body. Therefore, get into correct position on a steady edge 
and turn the body well round from the hips before making 

, the turn ; and simultan- 
eously with the turn 
assume correct position 
for the second curve, 
which should be in the 
general line of the first 
curve, not curled in at 
200 of 201 if 202 ob 203 ib the end of it. 

88 





204 



X. Threes. (Figs, aoo-3). For position, see page 
70 and Figs. 204-8. 

I. OF. Fig. 200. (M-W. 89-93; MxW.i33 58 5 B. 
8438. S.C.36 11 ; R.80; W.25.) The chiefdifficultyisto 
keep the second curve large, if Don't hurry the turn; draw 
the l shoulder back and look over it simultaneously with the 
turn, or just before it ; and keep the unempl. behind, with 
toes turned out and down. W Don't get too hard on the in- 
side edge, or travel too far back on 
the heel of the skate. Skated to- 
gether in field (B. 87. 40 ; S. C. 
39; Sp.E. 147 45 ), or eight (Fig. 
10, No. 3; B. 8 7 4i ; S.C. 41 12 ; 
W. 24-6; Sp.E 148*6-8. h. 
28 s ), the feet must be Spread- 
Eagled heel to heel, in order to 
connect the curves (Cf. Figs. 
195-6). The momentum on the 
new edge is given by the sway 
of the body. 

I.F. Fig. 201. (M-W. 87-89; 
MxW. 131 56 ; B. 89 45 ; S. C. 
39 ; R. 82 ; W. 25. ) The chief 205 
of Three difficulty is to hold a long, steady of Three 
istCurreoF curye before the tum ^ Don > t 2d Curve IB 

bring turn too soon by rocking too far forward on blade, or 

swinging unempl. (Fig. 206). Immediately after the 

turn let head follow left shoulder round as it draws unempl. , 

toes down and out,, behind empl. (Fig. 207, just started 

round). In skating to a large eight, 

after the turn, keep the eyes fixed on 

center over the r shoulder as long 

as possible — then turn head slowly 

and look for it along over the l 

shoulder, the correct position for ob 

(W. 26). 

O. B. Fig. 202. (M-W. 95; 

MxW. 134 59 ; B.89 43 - 4 ; S. C. 

45; R. 81; W. 28.) The main 

difficulty is to hold a strong if edge. 

&f Don't tilt forward on to the toe 

of the skate, but keep erect and hold 

unempl. well back. The turn must 

be made by conscious effort, 

206 — the foot cannot be left to 

if Three curve round of itself as in f 
1st Curve if Threes 

I. B. Fig. 203. (M-W.93 13 ; MxW. 132 5 *; S.C. 
46 14 ; B. 90 46 - 9 ; R. 82; W. 28.) The most difficult 

89 





207 
if Three 
2d Curve ob 





turn of all. Get hard on the edge and turn head and 
thoulders well round before the turn (Fig. 208). Throw 
weight far back on heel of skate, turn toes out with brisk 
muscular effort,and ^ T PlAT 

swing unemployed £$j 
gently around f and 
then back again 
into place for of. 

(For back threes _ M Skidding" at the 

to center — S. C. Turn 

62 23 " 4 ,— see Fig. 85.) 

In order to make these turns clean, there 

A / must be no sliding on the flat of the skate dur- 

/ - \ ing the transition from one edge to the other. 

«S» In Fig. 209, 1 , there is a scrape in getting from of 

op . to the flat 5 in 2, in coming off" the flat on to the 

tion just" IB 5 in 3 there is a scrape during the turn both 

before an in coming off the of and getting on to the IB 

ib Three (« dull skates'"); in 4, the balance is right 

and the turn clean ( R 81). 

Two Turns, or Double Threes 

An even number of turns brings the skater upon his 

original edge 5 an uneven number of turns upon the other 

edge in the other direction, of two turns end with the 

difficult IB Three, and are therefore harder 

to skate than three turns either in field, 

M-W. 106; S. C. 485 SpE. 153 54 , or 

in eight (Fig. 210), MxW. 137 63 ; B. 

94 5 ° ; S. C. 495 SpE. 150 s0 - 3 ; H. 28*. 

Alternate ob two turns are not difficult, 

if the unempl. is kept back after the first 

210— Double- turn 5 but alternate ib two turns are most 

Three Eight difficult to connect, without either a short 

change of edge or a scratch stroke. 

Multiple Turns, or Chain Threes 
In field, M-W. 106; MxW. 139 s4 - 6 ; B. 94. In 
eight, SpE. 169 77 . In chain threes, the rotation of the 
head and shoulders and the swing of the arms are continu- 
ous, — only the balance shifting from toe to heel, accord- 
ing as the turn is forward or backward. Started of, the 
rhythmic swing of Mr. J. F. Bacon's unempl. foot, — 
outward, aiding the forward curve (with a vigorous turning 
out of the empl. on the heel) and inward, forcing the back- 
ward curve (with a vigorous pull in of the empl., on the 
toe), produces as harmonious effect as the goldfinch's com- 
bination of his song and serpentine flight ; and started if, 
the vigorous but graceful back threes in the air of Mr. 
Herbert S. Evans' unempl., produce a more quiet but no 

90 




less harmonious effect. It would take a biograph series to 
do justice to either : they must be seen to be appreciated. 
Fig. 211 represents Mr. Bacon just starting on a new 
chain, of; Fig. 212, the unempl. just coming down to 
help the turn of to ib, and Fig. 213, the beginning of the 
IB. With this rhythmical scissor-like open and shut of 
the legs, the curves of course are short, but the action is 
full of life and grace. 





KOf 



211 212 213 

Random Shots at J. F. Bacon's Chain Threes 

Before taking up the other turns, we must consider 
briefly another important movement, which should be 
perfected in combination with these threes first. 

CHANGE OF EDGE 

The Four Serpentines. Figs. 214-217, M-W. 
83-45 MxW. 125-30; B. 98-100; S. C. 34-5, 42-3; 
R. 75; W. 23. The change of edge on both feet has 

already been illus- 
trated (p. 78 ff.) 
On one foot, the 
change from inside 
to 6utside is easier 
than from outside 
to inside. §|f Just 
at the moment of 
balance-shift, turn 
empl. toe outward on of and inward on if; on ib, turn 
the heel in, and on rob, English the shoulders still flatter 
and look over, not merely along, l shoulder. 

To change the edge on short curves (Fig. 218) ivitb 
a siuing of the unempl. (Fig. 219), is not difficult, provided 
the shoulders are kept well flattened through both changes, 
and the downward swing is accurately timed with a strong 
turning out of the ankle; but to change the edge on long 
curves, as above, by a simple tilt of the body into position 




91 



for the second edge without jerk or swing, and with steady 
edge at and after the change, is by no means easy 5 to 
change edge and gain pace and power at the same time is 
still harder, but it is the most useful stroke attainable, — by 




218 —One-foot Serpentine, with Swing 

it equilibrium is restored, falls are obviated, power and mo- 
mentum are recovered, and continuous skating made possi- 
ble. The principle is the restoration of a wilfully destroyed 
equilibrium by a push off and glide m the same foot. 

Thus, Fig. 220, at the moment of the 
change, riof, lean so far over to the 
left that in order to keep from falling, 
just as you turn your bicycle wheel in, 
so you must turn your toe sharply in, 
thereby shortening the curve and re- 

219 — Continuous One-foot Serpentine 
Change of Edge, with swing. The 
swinging foot is of course only mo- 
mentarily in this awkward position. 
Note the sidewise shoulders, a posi- 
tion essential to success in this fig- 
ure, and in many others. 

storing equilibrium ; at the same time, by a sharp bite and push 
from the ice with the empl. foot at the heel, catch up 
with the body and, assisted by a gentle swing of the unempl. 
leg, rotate the body from l to r and straighten it into posi- 





220 — riof Change 221 — roif Change 

tion for rof. The thickened portion of the diagram 
(Figs. 214-17) indicates this important power edge, at 
which the empl. knee is well bent. 

92 



if Do not kick the unempl. too vigorously, and do not 
bend it as much as in the illustration (Fig. 220), which 
was consciously skated into the focus of 
a small camera, jf Use thigh and ankle 
muscles, and employ shoulders and arms 
judiciously. 

The ob change (Fig. 222) is similar — 
the body falls to one side and behind the 
empl. foot, which, to restore equilibrium, 
is quickly turned, and by a sharp bite and 
push near the toe is brought up under the 
body, which is then rotated and straight- 
ened into position for ib. 

Nothing further need be said of the 
222-loib Change ther two changes, except that they should 
be practised until they can be done on each foot, both ways, 
in all the forms of Fig. 223 up to the one-foot continuous 
eights. (Continued on p. 114.) 





223 — One-foot Serpentine in Field and Eight 

THE THREE EDGES, OR Q'S 
M-W. 96-103 14 ; MxW. 156 94 - 7 ; B. 98-103 66 - 9 ; 
S. C. 42 13 ,47; R. 88. 14 . But long before that stage is 
reached, the difficulty of even the simple continous move- 
ment in field may be 
relieved by the inser- 
tion of a turn. Thus, 
after the change is 
made from if to of 
gX (Fig. 221), instead of 
jj Englishing the left 
shoulder back for a 
long r o f, utilize its 225— of 
forward rotation in the execution of a f three to Q El S nt 
the rib, bending the empl. knee slightly and gently swing- 
ing the unempl. This is the if Q 9 in field (Fig. 224); 

93 




fRiB 



[Rof 




if Q's 



in eight, Fig. 225, (SpE. 162 64 - 5 5 Cf Fig. 10, No. 12.) 
The of Q is made in the same way, but of course with 
the oppc site rotation for the if three. 

The ob Q is the more difficult, because the back change 
is more difficult ; but it throws the skater hard on to the 
ib, and if he is quick to take advantage of the rotation, by 
an acceleration of the l shoulder round, with corresponding 
swing of arms and turn of head, and a sharp turn out of 
the empl., almost pivoting on the heel, he will have less 
difficulty than usual with the difficult inner back three. 
The ib Q^will now present no special difficulties. 

THE FOUR REVERSE Q'S 
M-W. 104-6 16 ; MxW. 15798-101. b. 103-5*0-8 ; 
S. C. 44,47. The three comes first, then the change, 

Fig 226. §Hf Do not 
generate too much ro- 
\Ri8 tation at the turns. 

Keep tail of three as ^ — >. 
rob) straight as possible, f \ 

and at first exaggerate V^__V 
Ri F) the movements de- /^^^N. 
scribed on p. 92 in ( ) 

426- if Reverse Q's making the changes> K^^J 

Get off your balance by strong inclination, and 227 — if 
then recover equilibrium by strong push from Reverse Q 
bended knee and by vigorous turning out or in • 

of the foot, on heel or toe. Fig. 227 is a Reverse Q Eight. 
See Fig. 10, No. 41. Fig. 228 is a Reverse Q combined 

228 — The Spectacles 229 — Double Shamrock 

with a 2, almost a new element. See Fig. 91, and Fi^. 
357, Nos. 9-12. Fig. 229 is the double-three Spectacles. 
Fig. 230 is the continuous Spectacles. 







230 
Continuous Spectacles 



231 232 233 234 
Three Bracket Rocker Counter 



These Q's and Reverse Q's may be made with any of the 
other turns, which may now be resumed. Remember the 
distinctions in rotation and edge, p. 71. Cf. Figs. 231-4. 

94 



THE FOUR TURNS — 2. BRACKETS OR 
COUNTER-THREES 

(For general movement and position, see p. 70. Thi. 
descriptions here given are for long curves : for short curves, 

the turns may be madif 
by a twist of the ankle 
with almost no move- 
ment of the head, and 
with brisker movements 
of shoulders and arms. 
See Fig. 242). 

1. RIF. Fig. 236. 
(M-W. 117 5 MxW. 
R. 86,- W. 33.) The 



235 



179 126 ; 




238 

57 20 




237 

s. c. 

easiest, especially if unempl. is carried forward just before 

turn. Screw the body until the l shoulder leads, forcing 

the toes in 5 then lift 

the heel, turn the foot 

180 , and draw the l 

shoulder quickly back 

into position for rob. 239 — of Bracket 

2. ROF. Fig. 235. (M-W. 1175 MxW. i8o 12 «; 
B. 96 s4 ; S. C. 58 21 ; R. 865 W. 32.) The chief 
difficulty is to hold the ib edge, iff Keep the empl. well 
back (Figs. 239-40); get the body into position for the 
second curve before the turn by looking well back over the 
l shoulder ; then throw the heel round, but don't lift it too 
high, and draw the unempl. into position for ib. Fig. 241 
is taken just before the unempl. is drawn around. (These 
positions are not erect and quiet enough — the curves are 
small, owing to the narrow field 
covered by the camera to which they 
were skated). 

3. IB. Fig. 238. (M-W. 118; 
MxW. i8o 12 7. B.975 S.C. 58 21 ; 
W. 34. ) English l shoulder as far 
back as possible and turn the empl. 
heel in, forcing the curve. Get the 
turn as far back on the skate as pos- 
sible and swing the arms if necessary, 
across the breast, mf Don't lean 
forward at turn. 

4. OB. Fig. 237. (M-W. 118 5 




MxW. 189 



129 




B.975 S. C. 58; 

240 W. 33.) Screw shoulders round of Br'ket 
of Bracket ^ R ^^ forcing ^ curve . make 2d c'rveiB 

turn briskly on the extreme heel, and draw l shoulder auickly 
back into position for if. This is the hardest of the brackets, 
Fig. 242. They are all more violent when thus skated 

95 



alone 5 they are much easier in combination (Figs. 90,99), 
or when skated with a partner (Fig. 332). Fig. 243 is the 
Eight brackets in a horizontal Eight. For Bracket-Q, see 




243— The Eight Brackets 

Fig. 10, No. 155 and Re- 
verse Bracket-g, Fig. 10, 
No. 43. 



She's apt to learn, and 

thankful for good turns." 

Shakspere, T. S. % 2, 1, 166. 



242— One-foot Bracket Eight 



ff., 114 




244 






THE FOUR TURNS— 3. ROCKERS 

(M-W. 109-13 1 V MxW. 166-177 118 - 21 ; B. 107 
s. S.C. 51I6-7. R# 83.48-10. W . 29-31.) 
The chief difficulty 
with Rockers, is to 
hold the second edge. 
jflf Do not bend too 
much, thereby caus- 
ing a straying of the 
unemployed and the 
arms, which will pro- 
duce too much rota- 
tion at turn. Mf Acquire courage to throw the employed 
round 180 or more hard on 
to the required traveling edge. 
ff Don't turn the head — keep 
it looking in the direction of 
) motion, both before and after 
* the turn. 

Rocking turns ( Figs. 244-7 ) 
rotate like threes, brackets and 
counters, counter to threes. 
For example, start on this same 
right outer forward, but carry 
the employed forward 
(Fig. 248) instead of 




248-0 f Rocker 
1 st Curve 




249-0 f Rocker 
2d Curve 



97 



back (Fig. 204 or 159). Slowly describe a three in the 
air with the upper part of the body, but not with the foot 5 
the left shoulder is now leading — the body must turn : in- 
stead of falling upon the inside back as in 
the three, draw the left shoulder back, carry 
the right heel by sharp muscular effort as far 
round and out as possible so as to catch the 
outside back edge, look back hard over the 
left shoulder, and keep the unempl. foot 
inside the curve (Fig. 2495 but c £ 
Hiigel's, Fig. n). If you let it stray 
across, or if you generate too much rotation 
with your shoulders at the turn, 
you cannot hold the second edge 
without changing it or putting in 
a back counter (the best way to| 
learn a back counter). 

This of is the hardest of the 
rockers 5 the rotation which is right 
for the turn is wrong for holding the second 
curve. It is much easier to do with a partner, 
because each gives the other just the little prop need* d 
to hold the second curve (Fig. in). This " floating 
1 " is the most exhilarating turn on the ice. 

The outer back rockers are easiest, and 
may best be learned in combination with for- 
ward Mohawks (Fig. 92). Look as far as 
possible over unpl. shoulder, and 
turn unempl. foot down and out 
(Figs. 12 and 250). In large 
inside rockers, the 
first curve must be 
held sometime with 





251 
if Rocker 

after turn 



252 
ib Rocker 

beforetum 



the body swung 
round for the sec- 
ond curve, rif, 
unscrew rotation (Fig. 251), 
head looking behind over left 
shoulder, employed toe turned 
strongly in, and turn made on 
it; rib, screw rotation (Figs. 252-4), head 
looking behind over right shoulder, body 

98 




253 
ib Rocker 

at turn 




254 
ib Rocker 
after turn 



upright, heel turned strongly inward and turn made on it. 
Figs. 252-4 represent a small ib Rocker and 251 a small 
if Rocker with vigorous action and strong inclination. The 
inside forward is easier than the inside back, and all are 
easier when skated fast. 

THE FOUR TURNS — 4. COUNTERS 



M-W.114 18 ; MxW. i78 122 - 



S. C. 54 



18-9 



R. 8 7; W. 35-6. 



B. io7ff.,ii6 84 -*5 
The difficulty with 








256 

Counters, Figs. 255-8, is not so much in 
holding the second curve as in making the 
turn. The ob Counter is the hardest turn 
on the ice. 

The position for each Counter is almost 259 — of Counter 
identical with that for the corresponding just before 
bracket (compare Fig. 259 with 240). The unempl. goes up 
foot does not have to be turned so far round in ir Counter 
as in if Bracket, but farther in ib Counter than ib Bracket. 
f Counters are made on the front, b Counters on the back, 
of the skate. 

Hf The Counter rota- * aFy 
tion, forcing the curve, 
must be established well $'' 

260- rof Counter, showing unempl. 

before the turn (Fig. 259), approaching 
which lean hard on the edge, almost 
off vour balance, and throwing the 
unempl. forward in f Counters (Fig. 
260), and backward in b Counters, 
recover equilibrium with a vigorous 
acceleration of rotation for the second 
curve. See Fig. 261, the unempl. 
swinging back after the turn. The 
continuous stroke and swing make 
Counters much easier to skate to place 
as eights (Fig. 59) than rockers (Fig. 
58). Observe that a Counter like this 
261 — rof Counter is composed of a forced curve plus a 
simple one 5 a rocker of a simple curve 




after the turn 



99 



plus a forced curve. For Rockers and counters without 

the forced curve, see p. 104. Figs. 262-5 are Rocker and 

Counter-Q Eights 

and Reverse Q 

Eights (4 lobes). 

Two rockers and 

two counters may 

be expeditiously 

skated in field on 

each foot, f and 

b, alternately. 



'* Strange that 
desire should so 
many years out- 
live perform- 
ance." — 2. H '. 
IV, 2,4,284. 







262 
Rocker 



263 

Counter 



Q Eights 
LOOPS 



264 265 

Rocker Counter 
Reverse Q Eights 



M-W. 240- 41 } MxW. 143- 50 5 B. 1 1 7-1 s 5 SpE. 
154-60. 

I. On Two Feet. We have already, in the double 
grape-vine, Figs. 179-80, described a loop with one foot and 
a three with the other. When 
you have mastered the Canadian 
Eight, Figs. 266-7, y ou ma y> by 
vigorous rotation of the shoulders 
and strong, flexible ankle 
action, describe loops with both 
feet, Fig. 268, (<z) without 
change of feet, (£) with each 
leading in turn, — chain-loops. 
.. 2. On One Foot. The 
266 swing of the unempl. will aid the 

ana ni^ig t ghouiders m reducing a curve of 
larger radius to one of smaller radius, — the essen- 2 ^7 
tial of a loop. In order to come off the small radius curve 
back on to the large radius curve, the empl. knee which has 
been bent should be straightened and the balance shifted to 
the middle of the skate. This straightening of the body will 






268— Two-foot Loops 

100 



take the curl out of the tail of the loop, and facilitate the 
combination into rolls or eights on alternate feet, Fig. 10, 
Nos. 4, 30, etc. 




A Multiple Loop Combination by E. Syers, London. 

If double or muliiple loops are to be skated, the rotation 
must be increased in forward loops by the vigorous turning 
in, and in backward loops by the vigorous 
turning out, of the unempl. foot, knee, and 
thigh, see p. 116. In inner loops the un- 
empl. describes vigorous parallel loops in 
the air 5 the ib loop, Fig. 269, is made far 
forward on the blade. See the various 
combinations in Fig. 10, Nos. 10, 16, 
18-20, 23, 30-32, and in the one-foot 
eights, Fig. 62 and Fig. 357, Nos. 38-44. 
Ringlets are round, usually intersecting, 
and are made in the same way, only the 
unempl. foot is held lower. See p. 106. 
For other varieties of the loop see p. 45, 
269— ib Loops ^- os# g^and 35 . anc j Hg. 357, Nos. 49-53. 




CROSS CUTS AND BEAKS 

M-W. 242-4 61 - 4 ; MxW. 150-155, 286-2915 B. 
1 19-123; Fig. 270. 

I. On Two Feet, without rotation or change of edge. 
In Fig. 270, a wh le one foot rests, knee strongly bent, 
the other describes an of ^»\5 
counter-beak (Fig. 285, 
4), and so on alternately ; 
in J, both feet are describ- 
ing counter-beaks togeth- 
er. Begun forward at the 
bottom, both the "Lily," 
#,and the "Lilac' V, would 
be made with beaks (Fig. 
285, 1). Fig. 270, b is 
made, b or f, by two-foot 
inside counter cross-cuts 5 
Fig. 270, c by two-foot 
outside counter cross-cuts. 




270- Two-foot Beaks and 
Counter Cross-Cuts 

The above will be found 



excellent exercises for limbering the ankles. 



10 1 



The counter cross-cut on two feet can also be worked into 
the simple grapevine, Fig. 271, and the cross-cut into the 
Philadelphia Twist. Two-foot rockers and counters, in- 




271 — Counter Cross Cut Grapevine J. F. Bacon) 

side and outside (which may be prolonged into beaks), 
may also be worked into Grapevines, as in Figs. 272-6, 
selected from an infinite variety. 

Fig. 276 is drawn from MxW., p. 192, as a counter 
grapevine j but if the l°ading foot turned first and the 
following foot changed edge, it would be a rocker grape- 
vine, one foot tracking over the other. " Nothing acti- 



ttF 



RoF 



Los 



ROF 




/ 



ROF 



R08 



Y 

ROF 1 



J-IF 



'LOB 



we: 



L<*F 



RIF 



ROB 



VT 



ROF 




l:f /\> 

273 

272, if Counter ; 273, of Counter ; 274-6, Spread-Eagle 
Grapevines 

ally new in the way of grapevines, except this," adds Mr. 
Witham, "has been added to the above list since I880.' 1 
"He did not know Brady, Jenkins, and Story," writes 
Mr. Cook. "I have made quite a number myself, but 
some of them are * caviare to the general. ' One day a 
pun, suggested by a mispronunciation, set me on a quarter 

102 





277 



278 

Outer Counter 

Grapevine 8 



of a hundred plus one. I began with D-<vine, — and went 
through the whole alphabet. . . . The very different 
things that one can do at the same time on one's two feet 
is very remarkable, and the 
combinations are very nu- 
merous. I recall a pretty 
jeu-d" esprit of Dr. Bar- 
ron's. He cut one of his 
initials with one foot and 
the other initial with the 
Other foot, at the same 
time. . . . Our trans- 
atlantic brethren seem to 
put too little value on the 
Inner Counter two-foot movements. It is 
Grapevine 8 because the repertoire given 
is rather meagre. As the one-foot figures are akin to mel- 
ody, so the two-foot figures involve counterpoint.'''' 

2. On One Foot. A double three is a complete rota- 
tion of the body by two halfrturns of the foot ( Fig. 46). 

By stiffening the ankle and re- 
ducing the length of the second 
curve, you can make the figure 
all on one edge (Fig. 279): the 
middle curve looks like inside 
edge, but is outside. By pro- 
longing the first curve, and 
poising the body directly over 
the empl., you can make the 
forced second curve straight( Fig. 
280), and by prolonging the 
curves until they intersect, you 
have the cross-cut or Anvil, 
Fig. 281. The secret is to be 
well poised over your figure, and 
in forward cross-cuts to keep the 
unempl. foot back until after 
the first turn, then throw it for- 
ward while the empl. is going 
backward (Fig. 282) 5 in back- 
ward cross-cuts to keep the un- 
empl. forward until the first turn 
is made and then pull it backward 
while the empl. is going for- 
ward. The balance shifts from 
the extreme front of the blade in turns from f to b, to the 
extreme back of the blade in turns from b to f (see p. 73). 
By standing more erect and swinging the unempl. foot 
round gently and steadily near the ice, you can reduce the 

103 




cross-cut to a little suspended hitch at the apex of an oval 
(Fig. 283): and finally, without any retardation of mo- 
tion, make a complete 
loop (Fig. 284). Like 
all the turns, there are 
eight loops and eight 
cross-cuts, four on each 
foot. For complicated 
combinations in Maltese 
crosses, see Fig. 357, 
Nos. 54-64, of which 
Nos. 59, 60, 61 are 
specialties of H. S. Evans. 




*• Odly poised 
In this wild action." 
— T. C, 1,3, 340. 



282— Maltese Cross (J. F. Bacon) 



BEAKS AND PIGS' EARS 



M-W. 



123-25 



102-7 



244-249 6 5-72 ? 



MxW. 297-301 249 - 2 ? 3 ; B 
If rockers and counters are skated, not as 
progressive field figures, but more like cross-cuts, with strong 





285 — Beaks. Rockers and Counters, without any 
forced curves 

inclination and edge, the troublesome forced curve disap- 
pears and new skating elements appear. Again, the side- 
wise shoulders and spread-eagle ankles are essential to the 
attainment of the balance that enables a skater to let his 
foot get ahead of his body, forward or backward, come to 
a full stop, and by a strong push from the ice recover his 
equilibrium without any help from the unempl. leg, and 
with almost no rotation of the body. 

If the second curve comes directly back over the first, 
the figure is called a hook (Fig. 29)} if to one s ; de, a 
rocker beak or V (Fig. 285, 1 ), or a counter beak or V 
(Fig. 285, 4). The introduction of rotation produces a 
variety of rocker and counter, which some skaters think 



104 





r^T\ 



287 





Ron IROF 



290 





rof 

Double 
Cross-Cut 



the only legitimate rocking turn, because there is no 
forced curve (Fig. 285,3, 6). A beak combined with a 

change of edge (a beak 

-Q) is called a pig's 

a\^ ear (Fig. 286). A 

J l combination of two 

I J beaks produces other 2 9 r 

varieties of cross-cut — 
the curved (rocker-counter, crossing twice, 
Fig. 287), the counter cross-cut (counter- 
rocker, short cut, Fig. 288), the Swedish 
(counter-rocker, long cut, Fig. 289), 
and the double (Figs. 290-92). The 
Diamond Cross-cut, Fig. 293, may be 
skated without a change of edge. The 
Star, Fig. 294, is a combination cross-cut, 
done on the flat. Fig. 295 is a Pig's 
Ear Star by H. S. Evans 5 combined with 
threes, makes the Mill-wheel, Fig. 357, No. 36. 



292 Double 
Cross-Cut 




ROfArib 





294— Fiat-Foot 
Star 



293 — Diamond 
Cross-Cut 

SPINS 



295— Pig's Ear 
Star 



Swift & Clark, p. 61 ff; MxW. 2955 B. I2 6 108 " 112 . 
Complete revolutions on an edge (ringlet-spins}, on the flat 
(flat-foot and cross-foot spins, and tivo-foot ivbirls ) , and on 
the point (pirouettes}. 

I. On Two Feet. Whirls. Start with both feet 
about thirty inches apart on inside edge, and with strong 
rotation of shoulders, arms extended, bring feet together, 
toes in, with or without alternate Serpentine pushj or, 

105 



start with a vigorous forward three (Fig. 297), and on the 
backward curve put the other foot down, forward, toes 
in. Get on to the flat, stiffen the muscles, and accelerate 

rotation by bringing the arms 

down and in. The aim is to 

travel in a predetermined di- 




rection , or to settle into one 




spot and not travel at all. 

Turn in either direction, f 

start. In the early 6o's, 

Powers and Howard used to 

start the figure backward. 

Whatever beauty there is in 

it is solely in the rapid motion 

— so rapid that the camera 

can hardly catch it. Fig. 296, 300— lof Cross- 
296 therefore, snapped half way foot s P in 

Two -foot through a 3 6-revolution whirl, can give only a sug- 
Whirl g est j on of the motion, so attractive to the crowd. 
Cross-foot Spin, Fig. 298. Start rof 5 get on to the 
flat and cross the lob in front, heels first, and distribute the 
weight; or cross the lof, toes out, behind, Fig. 299. 
Repeat on left foot, Fig. 300 — four in all. 




297 
Two-foot Whirl 



298 299 

Cross-foot Spins 



2. On One Foot. Ringlet-Spins from the four edges 
on each foot — eight in all. The start may be made (1) 
from a vigorous edge, the 
radius reduced by strong 
rotation of arms and 
shoulders and swing of 
unempl.; or (2) from 
a change of edge; or 
( 3 ) more effectively, 
from a three; Figs. 301, 
305, 6. Correct balance 
and judicious manipula- 
tion of arms and un- 
empl. leg, may produce 

302 — lof Flat- rapid and effective ring- 
foot Spin ets ^ Don ' t . 

get too hard on the edge, and 30 i-lib Ringlet Spin from 
keep the unempl. down. Com- a lof Three 

pare the position of the unemployed in Figs. 301 and 302. 

106 





Flat-foot Spins are ringlet spins so poised on the flat of 
the skates that the ice is bruised, not marked by the edge 
with loops or ringlets as in Figs. 303-6. They are begun 




303 



304 



usually in the first way above. The easiest are rof turning 
to the right, and lof turning to the left, Fig. 302. The 
unempl. is held high. The jffect of lowering the unempl. 
is the same as of pulling the arms down in the whirls. See 






307 — Pirouette 308 — Figure Four Spin 309 — On both toes 
A. P. Lebedew, M. Kubenstein, L,. Servatius, 

St. Petersburg Montreal New York 

Hugel's variation of this Figure Four Spin, p. 37. Charles V. 
Dodge, in the early 6o's, used to skate a combination spin: 
as the speed of a tivo-foot whirl slackened, he would jump 




310 — Toe Movements Skated at the American Cham- 
pionship Competition in New York. Marc 1 " 15, 1900 

on his toes and hold them in the ice until the feet wound 
around each other, Fig. 309 5 then drop back on to the 
blade and continue in a cross-foot spin. Almost all these 
spins may be finished by a rise upon the toes into a 
pirouette. 

Pirouettes. "In Pirouettes," writes the veteran profi- 
cient, Mr. Eugene B. Cook, "there is a vast field for 



107 




experts. From every one of the Pivot-circle cardinal positions 
(p. 109), a pirouette can be made. One of the latest in- 
vestigations of mine was into the possibilities of rising from 

various edges, f and b, to a 
pirouette, and on it making 
a half-turn, a full turn, and 
a turn and a half, etc., and 
coming down upon some 
predetermined edge. Mr. 
John Martin of the "Em- 
pire City Skating Club ' ' of 
New York, used to rise from 
an outside edge forward to a 
pirouette, make one complete revolution and then suddenly 
dropping his heel, shoot off deftly on the outside edge of the 
pirouetting foot. I do the movement readily backward, outside 
edge. To alternate executing the figure on one foot and then 
on the other requires extreme precision. (See Keane's field 
pirouettes, skated the whole length of the St. Nicholas 
Rink Fig. 310, #). I found interesting combinations in 
double pirouettes — that is, in various positions upon the 
points of both skates. The legs are either uncrossed or 
crossed as the situation requires. A Spread Eag^ of mine 



311 — Alternate-foot Pirou- 
ette Eights 




fe^> PIROUETTE 




312 — Russian (Finn) Back Firoaette Eight 

that I never got any one to do was on the points of the 
skates on a back circle." (Cf. Figs. 309, 310, b). Cailie 
Curtis, in the 6o's, could make several revolutions on the 
toe at the end of a one-foot eight and return to the eight 
without any intermediate strokes or steps. (Cf. Fig. 311). 
Curtis could also jump from one toe-spin to another. The 
Finns and Russians seem to be the greatest modern masters. 
See p. 63, and Fig. 312. 

TOE AND HEEL MOVEMENTS — PIVOT- 
CIRCLING 

Swift & Clark, p. 59 ff; MxW. 292-3 241 - 5 ; B. 
127 113 " 4 . There are twelve cardinal toe-step positions, 
six on each foot : 

1. rif circling around l toe a-straddle, inside. 

2. rib circling around l toe a-straddle, inside. 

108 



3. Rof circling around l toe, crossed behind. 

4. rof circling around l toe, crossed in front. 

5. rob circling around l toe, crossed in front. 

6. rob circling around l toe, crossed behind. 

Yig. 313 is No. 6, on the left foot. (L. A. Servatius). 

The combinations of these simple toe steps is innumera- 
ble j e. g. start with No. 1, turn it into No. 5, then into 
No. 2, and finish with No. 3. fff In all 
of these figures make the circle complete 
in each step. "The pivot-circlings make 
a fine effect,'* says Mr. Cook again, "when 
the circling foot is far away from the pivot- 
fjot, or when one sits down on the heel of 
the pivot-foot. . . One of my latest ideas 
was the substitution of one toe in the place 
of the other. The toes can be made to 
slip almost into the same hole — and often 
into it. There are many combinations. 
Some interesting work can be done with 
one toe acting as a pivot, and the other foot, 
forward and backward, executing eights j . 3*3. 
and changing the feet by substituting one Plvot Clrclin g 
toe as pivot in place of the other. ' ' The varieties of these 
combinations would alone fill a book. Figs. 314-22 are a 
few easy ones. L. Rubenstein skates many of the one-foot 
eight diagrams, Figs. 57-62, and 355-6 as pivot figures 






314-22 — Pivot-Circle Figures 

The heel pivot figures are easier and even more numer- 
ous 5 they often leave effective pictures on the ice. Fig. 
323 is a variation of Callie Curtis' Star by Mr. E. C. Hill 



109 



of Brockton. First describe a pivot circle, and jump clear 
of it. Then, with rif, describe curve AB at same time 





323 — Heel Pivot Star 324 — Ball of Twine 

that lif, near heel, marks line 1 to 2. Without stopping, 
on l heel as pivot at 2, swing rif from B to C; then drop 
back on to lif edge 
and complete Star by 
repeating same move- 





326* a — Heel Pivot 325 — Ball of Twine 

ments, on both feet together, as in Fig. 323. By describing 
curved instead of straight lines, with the l, as in Fig. 




n^f 



326, h — Pivot Trefoil 
324, you may space this 
Star into Mr. Hill's Ball 
of Twine, Fig. 325. Figs. 
326-8 are self-explanatory. 




no 



HAND-IN-HAND FIGURES 

Cf. pp. 65-67. Even pivot-circling can be performed 
by partners j e. g. join right hands, face to face, and start 
on the plain inside edge toe-step, left foot forward. Place 
the two pivot-toes as near together as possible and describe 
a complete circle with the left foot. Next do the outside 
edge toe-step forward, left foot behind, making a complete 
circle. Join hands again, and repeat the same movement. 
(Swift & Clark, p. 72). 




Fig. 329 1 of Mohawk Echelon) ; 2 Large of Three; 
3 Large if Three (side by side) 

All the turns can be learned easier hand-in-hand, and 
when learned can be so skated with greater speed and exhil- 
aration. Cf. p. 62 and see Figs. 329, 339, reproduced by 




330 The Mohawk and ib Eight. (From H.H., kindness 
of Longmans & Co.) 

Ill 



permission from T. Maxwel Witham's System of Figure 
Skating, chap. xv. Horace Cox, London. 

331-338— Pair Skating. See also Figs. 105-8, 1 18-31 




331 332 

"Meal Sacks" (Boston Skating Club) 

331, with Mohawks; 332, with Brackets (side by side, 

or Echelon), 

^ n 333) 334> 33^> partners pass each other at the cen- 
ter; in 335 (The Curtis and Goodrich Waltz) they come 
together at * and spread apart at f ; 3 3 6 is r Mohawk, 
and ob Bracket Q, and forward 5 337, if change Mohawk 




337 338 

and ob Three. In the same way, the following move- 
ments may be skated, most of them hand-in-hand. (For 
abbreviations, see p. 77). 



112 



340, rof M loib, rif, and repeat, lof M roib, lif. 

341, rof 3 ib, lob 33 ob, rof, and repeat on l. 

342, rif 3 ob X lib, rif, and repeat on l. 

343, rof C obXlib, rif, and repeat on l. 

344, roifXlib 3 of-|-rif, and repeat on l. 

345, riof M lobX r ibQ, and repeat on l. 



tot 



rof 



LOB 




339 



1, Rocker Scud ; 2, Counter Scud ; 3, Simultaneous 
Rocker and Counter. 



346, riof M lob-)- rib, and repeat on l. 

347, rif B ob, lib, rif, and repeat on l. 

348, rof M lob X Rib 3, and repeat on l. 

349, ROIF, LOF 3 IB, ROIB, LOB B IF, RIOF+LIF 3 OB.). 

RiobXlib B ofX, and repeat. Etc., ad infinitum. 



113 



"Two persons through constantly skating together hand- 
in-hand, get so accustomed to each other that the slightest 
indication that a turn, a rocker, a Q, or a Mohawk is 
about to be executed by one side will be responded to by the 
other, and it is astonishing how many figures can be inter- 
woven one with the other. All the skating club figures 
(combined) can be skated hand in hand, but they are ren- 
dered more easy if the partners stand sideways and hold each 
other by one hand only. The art is for the left-hand part- 
ner to get well to the front, when turns on the rof are to 
be executed, and similarly the right-hand partner, when 
turns are on the left foot. Great help can be given by one 
to the other, by a judicious pull at the right moment, and 
when this pull is to be given, is only to be ascertained by 
practice together, but the pull will always be given by the 
skater who is on the inside of the curve described. The 
outside skater, who is pulled, enjoys the fun most, as he is 
brought round with a swish that is delightful, but the next 
movement will probably reverse the order, and the skater, 
who in the first movement was on the inside of the curve, 
will now be on the outside. This hand-in-hand skating, 
although greatly advanced siriee 1880, is still in its infancy 5 
and I quite expect to see great progress made in the next 
few years in this fascinating form of the art." (MxW. 
*8 S ). 

In this country, pair-skating will probably soon regain 
its former popularity ; but neither is likely soon to sup- 
plant individual skating, which now alone remains to be 
considered, in its most difficult form. 

CONTINUOUS ONE-FOOT FIGURES 

( Continued from page 93. ) 

M-W. 251-9 737 ; MxW. 129-30; B. 100-2; S. C. 
63-66. Before you can control your Serpentine change of 

edge into a perfect eight (Fig. 
223), your Figure will probably 
travel (Fig. 350) because one 
change is stronger than the other; 
but when you have acquired per- 
fect control, you may be able to 
equal or outdo Herr Max Kautz's 
record of 720 eights on one foot 
without stopping ! * Cf. pp. 91-3. 

**My legs can keep no pace with 
350 niy desires."— M. N. Z>. t 3, 4, 445. 

*W. H. Cheesman, who, according to Mr. Cook, learned 
the one foot eight of James Sands in 1S62, (cf. p. 21), skated 
the figure with peculiar ease and grace.andon one occasion 

114 




if Swing the uncmpl., not kick it as in Figs. 351-2. 

In the Continental style, the skater's position would be 
more like Fig. 353, rf, hands, perhaps, not quite so high. 

At the moment of 
catching power, 
the empl. is strong- 
ly bent and the 
unempl. is swung 
gently away from 
the empl., the 
skater then being ^^*" 




oh the ob, Fig. ^ 




351 — Bell-Loop Star. See Fig. 70. 



352 — Continu- 
ous Eight with 
Kick 

"He does it 

with a better 

grace, but I do 

it more natural." 

T. N. t 2, 3, 89. 



353, b. Photographs of skaters doing continuous eights 
in ^ood form not being at present available, description and 

sketches of Salchow's skating by a 

Continental expert* 

are inserted. 

'Begin an ib eight 

with the unempl. in* 

front, toe turned out 

and down (Cf. Fig. 

353, a.) At x 

( Fi g-354>*)>swing 

the unempl. to the 





353 $ ~ The Swing of the 
unempl., in liob change 



353 a — Catching Power ligb, 
with a swing 



back. Just before reaching the center, give a strong pull 
with the empl. ; throw the unempl. away from the body 

made go consecutive eights without stopping. Theodore 
H. Rodgers even exceeded this number. He accomplished 
133 consecutive eights on one leg, and immediately after, 95 
consecutive eights on the other leg — which had had a bullet 
shot through it during the Civil War. And these feats 
were accomplished nearly forty years ago ! 

* " It is difficult for even an artist, which I am not, to 
draw skaters in action, but these rough sketches will per- 
haps indicate what I wish to convey." The head in Fig. 
354 does not seem to be faced enough toward the center. 



"5 



with a free swing without jerk to I ; (Fig. 354, b~) then 
bring it slightly to the front at 2. At y, it is again swung 
behind. For all eights, either plain or continuous, the 
swinging of the unempl. should take place at x and y. 
An easy bending or sinking of the empl. takes place at the 
change, which gives the impression of soft- 
ness and absence of effort. The un- 
empl. in all turns and loops should 
describe the same figure in the air 
that the empl. is describing on the 
ice. Always look at the centers'* 
The chief difficulty is with the 
iob change. At the moment of 
catching power, the empl. is strong- 
ly bent 5 the push off is vigorous, 





354, a 



354, *> 





and the compensating swing of the unempl. in front to 
preserve the balance leaves it in position to be swung around, 
knee and toes out, so as to help the rotation of the shoulders 
in shortening the ob curve. This extra swing and rota- 
tion of the thigh and knee are essential to the insertion of 
turns, loops, and cross-cuts in the circumference (Figs. 
60-65). 

Changes of edge after loops in 
forward loop-eights, and outside 
loops after changes of edge in the 
back loop-eights, are extremely 
difficult. The execution of 
multiple loops in a continuous 
eight or star (Fig. 357, No. 
3 ^5 42), is facilitated if, of, you 

"wind" the unempl. in front of the empl. by rotating 
inwards the thigh and knee, and turning the toes in and 
down j if, if you " unwind" the unempl. thigh, knee, and 
foot, by rotating outward, ob multiple loops may be facil- 
itated by carrying the unempl. behind the empl., bending 
the knee and turning the toes down and out. In IB 
multiple loops, look far over the empl. shoulder, "wind" 
the unempl. round in front of the empl. , but rotate the 
thigh and knee out, and point the toes down and out. 
Cf. Grenander's Skating, M-W. 25g-o*. Similar control 
* " When I speak of the rotation of the thigh outwards 
or inwards," writes Dr. Monier- Williams, Oct. 4. 1000, " I 
mean to denote the purely anatomical rotation of the bone 
at the hip joint; and similarly the turning of the foot at the 

116 



of the unempl. must be attained in order to achieve 
Louis Rubenstein's difficult eights (Figs. 355-6). 

What this mastery of balance can accomplish in continuous 
one-foot skating, may be seen in the following figures by 
American and Continental experts. Most of them have 
been performed by Austrian and Swedish contestants in recent 
European competitions, the conditions of which permit 
concentration of practice on a few specialties for the free- 
skating part of the program. Many of them, like Jack- 
son Haines' spin, took years of practice to acquire $ few of 
them can be skated so small and regular as the diagrams 
might suggest 5 and for any one skater to perform all of 
them, would require more time for practice than he could 
command. If not published here for the first time (like 
Nos. 59-64, etc.), they are taken from foreign skating 
books and accounts of competitions in foreign sporting peri- 
odicals, like the London Field, or the Wiener Allgemeinen 
Sporfzeitung, as follows : 

Austrian — (Spuren auf dem Eise) "Vienna, Nos. 1, 7, 
", 2I , 35, 3 6 , 3 8 , 41, 54-6} by Max Kautz, 90, 93; 
by G. Hiigel (German and Austrian champion, 18945 
world's champion, 1 899-1900), 3-6, 19, 20, 22, 26-31, 
45-8, 72-875 by Georg Zachariades ( German and Aus- 
trian champion, 1893) 23, 565 by Ed. Engelmann (cham- 
pion of Europe, 1894) 53, 625 by Robt. Holletschek 
(Kunstfertigkeit im Eislaufen} Troppau, 13, 14, 17, 18, 

3 2 "4, 37, 40, 43, 44, 49-5*, 5 8 - 

Bohemian, — Anton Schmeykal, Prag. 25. 

Swedish, — by Nils Pcsse, champion 1884, {Figurakning 
a Skridskor} Stockholm, 7, 9, 16, 33, 39, 65-69, 86-75 
by Ivar Hult, 8, 15 5 by John Catani, 57. 

Russian, — Louis Walther, Mcskow, 10, 12. 

English, — Edgar Syers, London, 64. 

American, — Herbert S. Evans, Boston, 59-615 L. A. 
Servatius, N. Y., 63. 

Numbers 88, 89, 91, 92 are skating problems from 
Spur en auf dem Eise; 94, 95, problems from decorations 
on memorial gravestones at Mycenae, over 3,000 years old ! 

Fig. 3s7, pp. 1 18-122. " These are stars indeed; 
and sometimes falling ones." H. VIII. ,4, 1,54. 

ankle }oint. In the rof or rib loop, the bodv as a whole 
rotates in both cases in the same general direction, i. e., in 
a clockwise direction. Grenanderin both cases brings the 
unempl. foot over in front of the empl. ; but in the former 
case he rotates his unempl. thigh inwards and turns the toe 
(foot) inwards, /. e. towards the middle line of his own 
body; in the latter case, outwards or ;-way from the middle 
line. Why he finds this attitude the best for his purpose I 
am unable to sav, and so is he ; but he is certainly the finest 
performer of loops I ever saw.' ' 

117 




16 



17 
Ii8 



3-6* 




18 




19- 



21 



33 



84 



22 




ZS 




36 



32 



35 



Z? 



33 



36 
II 9 



28 31* 




34 




37 




38 



39 



40 




41 



42 



43 




44 



AS M 



49-52 




53 



54 



55 





6 7 



68 



6g 



70 71 





/o 







76 77 



78 79 







8o 8x 



32 83 






84 85 




86 87 






88 



89 



90 






9i 



92 



93 



\s 





95 



122 



APPENDIX 

Rules of Hockey Adopted by Several 
Important Amateur Hockey Leagues 

Rule I 

Team. — A team shall be composed of seven players, who 
shall be bona-fide members of the club they represent. 

Rule II 

Game. — The game shall be commenced and renewed by 
a face in the center of the rink. Rink shall be at least 
112 feet by 58 feet. 

Rule III 

Goals. — A goal is placed in the middle of each goal 
line, composed of two upright posts, four feet in height, 
placed six feet apart, and at least five feet from the end of 
the ice. The goal posts shall be firmly fixed. In the 
event of a goal post being displaced or broken, the Referee 
shall blow his whistle, and the game shall not proceed un- 
til the goal is replaced. 

Rule IV 

Face. — The puck shall be faced by being placed between 
the sticks of two opponents, and the Referee then calling 
play. 

Rule V 

Match. — Two halves of 15 minutes each, exclusive of 
stoppages, with an intermission of 10 minutes between, 
will be the time allowed for games. A game will be de- 
cided by the team scoring the greatest number of goals dur- 
ing that time. In case of a tie after playing the specified 
time, play will continue for ten minutes more, when, in 
the event of the score still being even, another game will 
be played. Goals shall be changed after each half. 

Rule VI 

Change of Players. — No change of players shall be made 
after a game has commenced, except for reasons of accidents 
or injury during the game. 

Rule VII 

Should any player meet with an accident during a game 
and be compelled to leave the ice, his side shall have the 
option of putting on a spare man from the reserve to equal- 
ize the teams. In the event of any dispute between the 

123 



captains as to such player's fitness to continue the game, 
the matter shall at once be decided by the Referee. 

Rule VIII 

Stoppages. — Should a game be temporarily stopped by 
the infringement of any of the rules, the captain of the 
opposite team may claim that the puck be taken, back and 
a face take place where it was last played from before such 
infringement occurred. 

Rule IX 

Off-Si de. — When a player hits the puck, any one of 
the same side who at such moment of hitting is nearer the 
opponent's goal line is off-side, and may not touch the puck 
himself or \n any way whatever prevent any other player 
from doing so until the puck has been played. A player 
must always be on his own side of the puck. 

Rule X 

Knocking on, Charging, Etc. — The puck may be 
stopped, but not carried or knocked on, by any part of the 
body. No player shall raise his stick above the shoulder. 
Charging from behind, tripping, collaring, kicking or cross- 
checking shall not be allowed, and the Referee must rule off 
the ice, for any time in his discretion, a player who, in his 
opinion, has offended deliberately against the above rule. 

Rule XI 

Puck Off Ice. — When the puck goes off the ice behind 
the goal line, or a foul occurs behind the goal line, the 
puck shall be brought out by the Referee to a point five 
yards in front of the goal line, at right angles from the 
point at which it left the ice, and ther**' faced. When the 
puck goes off the ice at the side, it'\iall be similarly faced 
three yards from the side. 

Rule XII 

Goal-keeper. — The goal-keeper must not, during play, 
lie, kneel, or sit upon the ice, but must maintain a standing 
position. 

Rule XIII 

Score. — A goal shall be scored when the puck shall have 
passed between the goal posts from the front and below an 
imaginary line across the top of posts. 

Rule XIV 

Sticks. — Hockey sticks shall be made of wood, with no 
harder substance attached thereto, and shall not be more 
than three inches wide at any point. 

124 



Rule XV 

Puck. — The puck must be made of vulcanized rubber, 
one inch thick all through, and three inches in diameter. 

Rule XVI 

Officials. — The captains of the contesting teams shall 
agree upon . a Referee, a Timekeeper, and two Umpires, 
one to be stationed behind each goal, which positions shall 
not be changed during a game except by mutual consent. 

Rule XVII 

Referee. — All disputes on the ice shall be settled by the 
Referee, and his decision shall be final. 

Rule XVIII 

Umpires. — All questions as to goals shall be settled by 
the Umpires, and their decisions shall be final. 

It is also agreed that Player must have written release 
from team he has played on before playing on another 
team of the league. 

Each team shall be allowed one coach who may be im- 
ported and allowed to play on team, but all other players 
must be residents of the locality which the team represents. 



125